Taj Mahal & Aurangzeb: Characteristics and Architecture Details for IAS

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Taj Mahal

Details of Taj Mehal
  • Taj Mahal was built in Agra by Shah Jahan as a mausoleum (a kind of large tomb) for his deceased wife Mumtaz Mahal.
  • It was commissioned in the year of and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Taj Mahal was the apogee of the evolutionary architectural process in medieval India.
  • The Taj complex is entered through a monumental red sandstone gateway, the opening arch of which beautifully frames the mausoleum.
  • The tomb is laid out in a Chahar Bagh (garden) , crisscrossed with paths and watercourses, interspersed with pools and fountains.
  • The structure is placed on the northern extremity of the bagh instead of the middle to take the advantage of the riverbank (Yamuna) .
  • The straight path through the bagh reaches the plinth of the tomb.
  • At the corners of the terrace stand four tall minarets, one hundred and thirty two feet high.
Tajmahal՚S Top Part
  • The main body of the building is topped with a drum, a dome, and four cupolas forming a beautiful skyline.
  • Towards the west of the white marble faced tomb lie a red sandstone mosque and a similar construction in the east to maintain balance.
  • The marbles for the building was quarried from the Makrana Mines, Rajasthan.
  • The inner arrangement of the mausoleum consists of a crypt below and a vaulted, octagonal tomb chamber, with a room at each angle, all connected by corridors.
  • Light to every part of the building is obtained by means of carved and perforated Jalis, set in the arched recesses of the interior.
  • Four types of embellishments have been used with great effect for the interior and exterior surfaces of the Taj Mahal.
  • These are stone carvings in high and low relief on the walls, the delicate carving of marble into jails and graceful volutes (spiral ornament on the pillars) , and the creation of arabesque with pietra dura on walls and tombstones and geometric designs with tessellation.
  • The art of calligraphy is used with the inlay of jasper in white marble to unite Quranic verses.
  • Calligraphy provides a decorative element on the walls and a continuous connection with the almighty.

Aurangzeb

Auranzebs Bibi Ka Makbara
  • Decline in architecture
  • Bibi ka makbara-poor replica of taj mahal
  • Construction of red fort at delhi
  • Badshahi mosque at lahore

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