Temple Architecture & Dravid School of Temple Architecture for IAS

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Temple Architecture

Temple Architecture
  • Began and reached a climax during Gupta period.
  • The gupta period is described as classic degree of perfection.
  • Perfect balance and harmony of all elements in style and iconography.
  • Earlier developments
  • A circular brick and timber shrine of the Mauryan period of 3rd century B. C. was excavated at Bairat District of Jaipur, Rajasthan.
  • Temple ′ at Sanchi, has a similar plan, it was a stone temple on an apsidal plan enclosed by an ambulatory, and raised on a high, rectangular scale, approached by two flights of steps from diagonally opposite sides.
  • The super structure was possibly built of wood, and has disappeared.
Temple Architectures
  • This is a little structure built of huge almost boulder like blocks of stones.
  • The temple consists of a simple square cell the garbhagriha or sanctum sanctorum, in front of which there is a coveredverandah, a portico, which consists of four heavy pillars supporting a stone roof.
  • The pillars as well as the entire structure is as simple.
  • He didn՚t consider the climate and did not provide gargoyles to allow the rainwater to run off the roof.
  • The entire structure is heavy, bulky, and clumsy. Probably, this was constructed near about to A. D.
  • The earliest structural temple still standing in its original condition is the one constructed at Aihole in Karnataka.
  • There are five stages of temple architectural development

1st Stage

Kankalidevi Temple
  • Square temple
  • Flat roof temple
  • Shallow pillared approach
  • Temple constructed on low platform
  • Ex. temple no at Sanchi
  • Kankalidevi temple, Tigwa, MP.

2nd Stage

2nd Stage of Temple
  • Square temple
  • Flat roof temple
  • Higher platform
  • Covered embulatory passage around The garbhgriha (santum santorum)
  • 2 storeyed temples are found
  • Ex. Parbati temple at Nachna kuthara, MP

3rd Stage

Square Temple
  • Square temple
  • Concept of shikhar introduced
  • Low and square shikhar
  • Pillar approach
  • Higher platform continued
  • Introduction of panchayatan style main shrine 4 subsidiary shrines
  • Main shrine rectangular shape
  • Crucified ground plan
  • Precursor to nagara style
  • Ex. Dashavatar temple deogarh, UP
  • Durga temple Ahihole, Karnataka

4th Stage

Rectangular Sample
  • Rectangular temple
  • Shikhar
  • Higher platform
  • Panchayatan style
  • Ex. Ter temple Sholapur, maharashtra

5th Stage

Rectangular Temple
  • Circular temple with shallow rectangular projections at four cardinal faces
  • Ex. Maniar matha Rajgir, Bihar

Dravid School of Temple Architecture

Dravid School of Temple Architecture
  • Functions
  • Religious matter
  • Administrative centres
  • Control of vast areas of land

Architecture

Architecture of Temple

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