Anumana Terminology for IAS

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 Paksha Hetu Sadhya Minor Term (Mountain)Characteristic – linga (smoke on Paksha) Middle Term (Smoke)vyapya (smoke)factum probansReason Major Term (Fire)vyapakafactum probandum
• Inferential cognition (anumiti) is a proposition that follows from the first two propositions and so corresponds to the conclusion of the syllogism
• Vyapti expresses the relation of invariable concomitance of hetu (middle term) with the sadhya (major term) .
• The middle term (smoke) when appearing on Paksha is called linga (sign) while in vyapti it is called hetu (reason) . Complete notes and preparation module at doorsteptutor. com
• Paksha - Sapaksha: The place where the sadhya definitely is exists is sapaksha (kitchen) & Vipaksha: The place where the sadhya is definitely absent is vipaksha (lake)
• Hetu
• Linga
• Drstanta (Example)
• Pakshadharmata (Special Feature of the Subject) - judgment of such a perception.
• E. g. , existence of smoke on mountain. Pakshadharmata of the paksha is essential for proving sadhya (fire) on the paksha
• Paramsa: The process of inference relates the sadhya or major term to the paksha or minor term.
• This is done through the relation of the hetu to both the paksha (by pakshadharmata) and the sadhya (by vyapti) .
• Subsumptive reflection is the knowledge of reason (hetu) existing on the paksha together with the knowledge of invariable concomitance (vyapti) between hetu and sadhya.

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# Vyapti