# Associating Indian Concepts and Terms in Logic Concepts with Western Fallacies

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- Logic can be defined as the Science and Art of correct thinking.
- It consists of thoughts, ideas, argument, account, reason or principle.
- Logic distinguishes correct from incorrect reasoning with the study of suitable methods and principles.
- Logic is responsible for laying down the rules for correct reasoning.
- It also distinguishes good arguments from the poor ones.

## Concepts and Terms in Logic

Mental Operation | Products | External Signs |

Simple Apprehension | Concept | Oral and Written Terms |

Judgement | Mental Proposition | Oral and Written Propositions |

Reasoning | Mental agreement or disagreement | Oral and Written Arguments |

## Western Logic

- According to Aristotle logic is the new and necessary reasoning as it allows us to learn what we do not know.
- It is necessary because the corresponding conclusions cannot be escaped.

## Types of Logic

### Formal Logic

- What we think of as traditional logic or philosophical logic.
- It can be expressed as a wholly abstract rule such as the rules of formal logic

### Informal Logic

- It is a recent discipline that studies natural language arguments.
- It also attempts to develop a logic assess, analyse and improve ordinary language (everyday reasoning) .

### Symbolic Logic

- It is the study of symbolic instructions to capture the formal features of logical inference.
- It includes complex mathematical calculus while attempting to solve intractable problems which the traditional formal logic cannot address.

### Mathematical Logic

- The earliest use of Mathematics and Geometry with respect to logic and philosophy goes back to the Ancient Greeks such as Plato, Aristotle.
- Manipulating symbols according to definite and explicit rules.

## Indian Logic

- Related directly to the concepts of ATMAN and BRHMAN.
- VEDAS are considered to be main scriptures.
- The four main acceptances in Indian logic are Perception (pratyaksha) , inference (Anumana) , Comparison (Upamana) , testimony (shabda) .
- The four fold Dilemma in Indian logic are A is B, A is not B, A is B & A is not B, Neither A is B nor is A not B.

## Comparison and Contrast Preview

- The Indian logic dates back to just thousands of years with the concept of dilemma did not stop with first two propositions but fourfold dilemma.
- Both the logical aspects of western and Indian provide an opportunity to find truth in the world.
- Indian Logic contains meditation which is not there in the Western logic and it gives priority to the development of mind.
- Indian logicians make their investigation with involvement of religions whereas Western logicians make their investigation with the materialism.

-Manishika