Classical Indian Philosophy Purva-Mimamsa: Epistemological Concepts of Prabhakara and Kumarila Schools

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Classical Indian Philosophy Epistemology: Purva-Mimamsa (Philosophy)

The Concept of Triputi-Samvit

  • The theory of Triputi-samvit is advocated by Prabhakara.

  • According to the theory, in an act of cognition- the knower, the known and the knowledge are all simultaneously revealed.

  • For example, “I know this,”- here, all three are revealed together. .

  • According to Prabhakara, perception is always direct and immediate cognition.

  • On the other hand, inference and memory are always indirect cognitions.

  • In perception- the object (known), the self (knower) and the knowledge are all simultaneously revealed.

  • Hence, the self is the subject of knowledge, according to Prabhakara.

The Concept of Jnatata-Vada

  • The theory of Jnatata-vada is advocated by Kumarila.

  • Knowledge is brought by the activity of the self, which results in producing consciousness of objective things.

  • According to him, cognition of object ends not in a further cognition of that cognition but in the cognised-ness of the object.

  • An act of knowledge deals with;

    • Knower or jnata.

    • Object of knowledge or jneya.

    • Instrument of cognised-ness of the object or jnatata.

  • So, knowledge is inferred and it is free from defects.

The Concept of Anvitabhidhanavada

  • The theory is advocated by Prabhakara

  • According to him, the meaning of the words can only be known when they occur in a sentence joined in with some duty or injunction.

  • So, words express meanings when they are related to an injunction. Otherwise, it is a case of remembrance.

  • Simply put, meaning deals with injunctions and not with memory or recollections.

  • Words have letters and letters have potency or sakti. So, letters are direct cause of Verbal testimony or sabda or verbal cognition.

  • Hence, the cognition of the meaning is the word is not obtained via sense-perception.

The Concept of Abhihitanvaya-Vada

  • The theory is advocated by Kumarila.

  • According to Kumarila, the knowledge of meaning is due to words because words denote the meanings.

  • In other words, knowledge is not due to recollection or apprehension, but due to denotation.

  • Kumarila believes that words denote meaning because the relationship between the word and its meaning is directly cognisable.

Questions

1. The theory of Jnatata-vada is advocated by

A. Jamini

B. Kumarila

C. Prabhakara

D. Both A and B

Answer: B

2. Words denote meaning is accepted by

A. Jamini

B. Kumarila

C. Prabhakara

D. Both A and B

Answer: B

3. Words have letters and letters have potency or sakti is accepted by

A. Jamini

B. Kumarila

C. Prabhakara

D. Both A and B

Answer: C

4. Self is the subject of knowledge, according to

A. Jamini

B. Kumarila

C. Prabhakara

D. Both A and B

Answer: C

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#Epistemology

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#Prabhakara

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