Terminology in Psychology IAS Part 4

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Perception: The mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS): All parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.

Personality: A person’s unique and relatively stable patterns of thinking, emotions, and behavior.

Personality disorder: A maladaptive personality pattern.

Personality type: A style of personality defined by a group of related traits.

Place theory: Theory that higher and lower tones excite specific area of the cochlea.

Positive reainforcement : Occurs when a response is followed by a reward or other positive event.

Prejudice: A negative emotional attitude held against members of a particular group of people.

Preoperational Stage: Stage at which children learn mentally to represent things

Primary Reinforcers: Biologically determined reinforcers such as food and water

Priming: Facilitating the retrieval of an implicit memory by using cues to activate hidden memories.

Procedural memory: Long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills.

Programmed Instruction: Structured lessons that students can work on individually at their own pace

Projective tests: Psychological tests making use of ambiguous or unstructured stimuli.

ProSocial Behaviors: Actions that show respect and caring for others

Prototype: The most representative example of a category

Psychoanalysis: The form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Freud; an intensive and prolonged technique for exploring unconscious motivations and conflicts in neurotic, anxiety‑ridden individuals

Psychodynamic theory: Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces.

Psychological Dependence: The psychological need or craving for a drug

Psychologist: A person highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology.

Psychology: The scientific study of overt behavior and mental processes (convert behavior).

Psychophysics: The study of the correspondence between physical stimulation and psychological experience

Psychotherapy: Any psychological technique used to facilitate positive changes in a person’s personality, behavior, or adjustment.

Punishment: Using unpleasant consequences to weaken a behavior

Random assignment: The use of chance (for example, flipping a coin) to assign subjects to experimental and control groups.

Rapid eye movements (REMs): Swift eye movements during sleep.

Recall: To supply or reproduce memorized information with a minimum of external cues.

Recognition: An ability to correctly identify previously learned information.

Reflective processing: Thought that is active, effortful, and controlled.

Reflex: An innate, automatic response to a stimulus; for example, an eyeblink.

Relaxation response: The pattern of internal bodily changes that occurs at times of relaxation.

Reliability: The ability of a test to yield nearly the same score each time it is given to the same person.

Repression: Unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness.

Resistance: The inability or unwillingness of a patient in psychoanalysis to discuss certain ideas, desires, or experiences

Response: Any action, glandular activity, or other identifiable behavior.

Resting potential: The electrical charge of a neuron at rest.

Retrieval: The recovery of stored information from memory

Retrieval cue: Stimulus associated with a memory. Retrieval cues usually enhance memory.

Rote Learning: Memorization of facts or association

Scaffolding: The process of adjusting instruction so that it is responsive to a beginner’s behavior and supports the beginner’s efforts to understand a problem or gain a mental skill.

Schedule of reinforcement: A rule or plan for determining which responses will be reinforced.

Schemes: Piaget’s term for cognitive structures that develop as infants and young children learn to interpret the world and adapt to their environment

Secondary reinforcer: A learned reinforcer; often one that gains reins reinforcing properties by association with a primary reinforcer.

Self‑Actualization: A person’s desire to develop to his or her full potential

Self-concept: A person’s perception of his or her own personality traits.

Self-esteem: Regarding oneself as a worthwhile person; a positive evaluation of oneself.

Self-fulfilling prophecy: A prediction that prompts people to act in ways that make the prediction come true.

Self-reference: The practice of relating new information to prior life experience.

Semantic Memory: A part of long‑term memory that stores facts and general knowledge

Sensation: A sensory impression; also, the process of detecting physical energies with the sensory organs.

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