Crime and Delinquency: Introduction and Types of Juvenile Crimes

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Introduction

  • Crime committed by youth
  • Juvenile Justice Act, 1986
  • Status offences – truancy, immorality
  • Violation of criminal code
  • Patterns of behaviour

Types of Juvenile Crimes

By Trojanowicz

  • Accidental
  • Unsocialized
  • Professional
  • Gang organized

By Hirsh

  • Incorrigibility – disobedience, rebel
  • Truancy – skipping school
  • Larceny - petty theft to armed robbery
  • Destruction of property – public and private
  • Violence – may use weapons
  • Sex offences

By Eaton and Polk

  • Minor violations – e. g. breaking traffic light
  • Major violations – e. g. thefts
  • Property violation – trespassing
  • Addiction – alcoholism or drugs
  • Bodily harm – murder or rape

Types of Crimes

  • Individual crimes – psychological issues – faulty family – economic hardships
  • Group supported crimes – By Sutherland – companionship of family or peer – Differential association – learnt from who?
  • Organized crimes – By Cohen – criminal subculture – guided by norms of that group
  • Situational crimes – heat of the moment – no deep-rooted intention

Causes

  • Psychological factors – personality disorders
  • Family environment – early childhood experiences – emotional deprivations – family tension – parental rejection or neglect
  • Peer group
  • Neighborhood – conflicts – anti social values
  • Mass media – pornographic literature or cinema – influenced by villains – techniques imitated

Remedies

  • Therapy - Psychological
  • Social engineering – dealing with conditions of social structure
  • Reality therapy – concerned with present behaviour
  • Active therapy – release emotions – friendly environment – free to express
  • Environment therapy
  • Behaviour therapy
  • Counselling
  • Probation hostels, Parole services
  • Establishing and coordinating welfare schools, rescue homes, orphanages
  • Social case work
  • Greater family attention
  • Primary Prevention
  • Rehabilitation or secondary prevention
  • Preventive programmes for runaway children
  • Positive communication
  • Coordination between various institutions like Police, Judiciary, NGOs etc.

MCQ

Q. 1. Controlling environment of children contributing to crime will help bring down delinquency rates. The methods to adopt can be:

a) Raising income level of poverty-stricken families

b) Community organization

c) Childcare agencies

d) All of the above

Ans: b and c

Q. 2. Some of the characteristics of crime area are:

a) Low income, economic deprivation

b) Exposure to social norms

c) Physically deteriorated

d) All of these

Ans: a and c

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