# IAS: Statistics Glossary D to K

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## Statistics Glossary: D to K

- Data: The numerical information collected of variables.
- Degree of freedom: The number of classes to which the value can be assigned arbitrarily or at will without violating the restrictions and limitations placed on the numbers of independent constraints in a set of data.
- Dependent: Events whose occurrence or non-occurence doesn't affect the occurrence of the other event.
- Event Dependent Variable: Variable which is cause or influence by another variable in a given phenomenon.
- Descriptive Statistics: The numerical data which describes phenomena.
- Directional Test: A test, used to compare two statistical values and predict that one is higher than the other or vice-versa.
- Discrete Variable: A variable not capable of assuming all values in a given range or a variable which can be measured only by means of whole numbers.
- Disjoint Occurrence: Two outcomes which doesn't happen simultaneously or which have nothing in common.
- Distribution: Collection of measurements expressing how scores tend to spread over a measurement scale
- Dispersion: The scatter or variability of the data about a given Central tendency.
- Frequency: A diagram which displays the number of measures falling into different Histogram classes.
- Frequency polygon: It is a graphic display in which frequencies are plotted against mid-points of the class-intervals & the points thus obtained, are join by a line segment.
- Fiducial limits: The confidence limits are also known as Fiducial limits
- Favorable Events: The trials, which entail the happening of an event, are favorable to the event.
- Grouped Data: A set of values belonging to different groups.
- Histogram: Graphic display of the frequency of a phenomenon.
- Independent Variable: A variable that causes or influences another variable.
- Independent Event: An event, whose occurrence or non-occurence, doesn't effect the occurrence of the other event in any way.
- Inference: Conclusion about a population parameter based upon the analysis of a sample statistic (sample being drawn from same population).
- Inter-Quartile Range: It is the difference between the upper (Q3) and the lower quartile (Q1) inclusive.
- Interval: A scale, which uses numbers to rank order.
- Intercept: The value of the ordinate (Y) at which a straight line crosses the vertical axis.
- Joint Occurrence: An occurrence in which two outcomes happen simultaneously (AB or ACB).
- Kurtosis: It is the degree of flatness or peakedness, in the region of the mode of frequency curve.