IAS Mains Agriculture Paper 2011

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Paper 1

Section –A

Q.1. Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Importance of agro-ecological factors in land use planning.

  2. Integrated nutrient management or sustainable agriculture.

  3. Surface and sub-surface drip irrigation.

  4. Biological weed control.


  1. Explain the fertigation giving its merits. Give suitable fertilizer of major nutrients used in fertigation through micro-irrigation.

  2. Enumerate fertigation equipments along with their merits and demerits.

Q.3. Differentiate between the following terms:

  1. Sheet erosion and rill erosion.

  2. Agroforestry and social forestry.

  3. Organic and inorganic colloids of soil.

  4. Chemical fertilizers and bio-fertilizers.

  5. Selective and non-selective herbicides.

  6. Mineralization and immobilization.


  1. Enlist important greenhouse gases. How can agriculture affect climate change? Describe the importance of carbon sequestration.

  2. What are the different methods of planting sugarcane?

Section –B

Q.5. Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Importance of available soil moisture in irrigation water management.

  2. Principles of treatment of industrial effluent for irrigation purpose.

  3. Kisan call centre.

  4. Crop insurance.


Explain integrated watershed management as a hydrological unit. Describe the principles and objectives of watershed management. Describe the benefits and causes o deterioration of watershed.

(b) What is extension programme planning? Explain principles and steps of extension programme planning. How will you evaluate and extension programme?


(a) What is the importance of agricultural marketing? Explain the physical and institutional infrastructure of marketing and market intelligence.

(b) What is expert system? How can it help in disseminating information to the farmers across the country in the scarce situation of human and financial resources to extension?

Q.8. Explain the following:

  1. Problems of waterlogged soils.

  2. Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) in irrigation water.

  3. Role of self help group in empowering rural women.

  4. Criteria of scheduling irrigation.

Paper 2

Section –A

Q.1. Answer the following in about 150 words each:

  1. What are transgenics? Discuss the major biosafety concerns of genetically modified crops.

  2. What are cytoplasmic mutations? Discuss their role in crop improvement.

  3. What is rouging? Discuss its importance in quality seed production.

  4. What is photoinsensitivity? Discuss its significance in crop production.

Q.2. Answer the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Describe briefly the ultrastrusture of a plant cell. Explain cell as a structural and functional unit of life.

  2. What are haploids? How are they produced? Discuss their application in crop improvement.

  3. Discuss critically the strengths and weaknesses of seed industry in India.

  4. What are plant antitranspirants? Discuss their application giving suitable examples.

Q.3. Answer the following in about 150 words each:

  1. What is heritability? Explain the types of heritability and their significance in crop improvement.

  2. What is hybridization? Briefly discuss the techniques in hybridization.

  3. Give a brief account of seed legislation in India.

  4. Distinguish between the C3 and C4 mechanisms of photosynthesis and discuss the biological significance of C4 cycle.

Q.4. Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Somaclonal variation and its use in crop improvement.

  2. Molecular markets and their application in plant improvement.

  3. Seed registration.

  4. Plant enzymes and their role in the vital activities of plants.

Section –B

Q.5. Answer the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Define polyembryony. Discuss its significance I horticulture with special reference to mango and citrus.

  2. Write the diagnostic symptoms of potato spindle tuber disease, its mode of transmission and management.

  3. What is micropropagation? What are its advantages? Give suitable example of its utilization in horticultural crops.

  4. What is a pheromone trap? Discuss its use in pest management.

Q.6. Answer the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Describe candied fruits, glazed fruits and crystallized fruits and give the principles involved in their preservation.

  2. List out the major insect pests of citrus. Write in detail about citrus psylla with its management.

  3. What is plant quarantine? How does it regulate the import and export of plants and seed material?

  4. What is food security? Write a note on food grain production and food security.

Q.7. Answer the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Elucidate the medicinal uses of ‘Sarpagandha’ (Rauwolfia serpentina). Recommend the viable production technology for ‘Sarpagandha’.

  2. Describe the production technology for carnation under greenhouse conditions.

  3. Write in brief the diagnostic symptoms of bunchy top of banana, its mode of transmission and management practices to combat the problem.

  4. Discuss the present status of cashewnut industry in India with reference to production, productivity, consumption and export. Suggest strategies for its further improvement.

Q.8. Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Ikebana.

  2. NETO and NEPO viruses.

  3. Sex expression in papaya.

  4. Pesticide residue toxicity in fruit and vegetables.

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