IAS Mains Agriculture Paper 2013

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Paper 1

Section –A

Q.1. Answer the following in about 150 words each:

  1. What are the advantages of integrated farming system? Discuss about resource recycling in different integrated farming systems in India.

  2. Discuss the climatic parameters in relation to agro-ecosystem. What are the major threats to agro-ecosystem?

  3. What is remote sensing? How can we use it in agriculture?

  4. Why is evaluation an essential part of any extension programme? State its advantages in brief.

  5. Discuss briefly the challenges in agricultural marketing system. State the advantages of supply chain management.

Q.2. Answer the following in about 200 words each:

  1. Enumerate the factors influencing soil erosion. Classify and discuss briefly various type of erosion.

  2. Discuss the factors affecting crop-weed competition. What do you mean by critical period of crop-weed competition?

  3. What are the scientific irrigation scheduling criteria? What is critical stage approach for scheduling irrigation?

  4. What are the uses of farm planning and budgeting? Discuss the steps to be followed in farm planning and budgeting.

  5. Suggest measures which can help to meet major challenges in agriculture and food security for stabilizing crop yields.

Q.3. Differentiate and elaborate the following in about 150 word each:

  1. Photoperiodism and Thermoperiodism

  2. Gravitational water and hydroscopic water

  3. Relative and Obnoxious weeds

  4. Inorganic fertilizers and Bio-fertilizers

  5. Group discussion and Buzz session

Q.4. Answer the following in about 250 words each:

(a) What are the impacts of climatic change in agriculture? How can the impacts be mitigated in crop environment?

(b) Write about the factors of development of herbicide resistance in weeds. What are the management options?

(c) What are the causes of soil degradation and pollution? What measures may be adapted to control to soil pollution?

Section –B

Q.5. Write short notes on any five of the following in about 150 words each:

(a) Protected agriculture

(b) Green house effect and global warming

(c) Participatory rural appraisal

(d) Quality of irrigation water

(e) Social forestry

(f) Ley farming

Q.6. Explain the following in about 150 words each:

(a) Watershed management

(b) Mode of herbicidal action

(c) Principle of limited capital and opportunity cost

(d) Crop diversification

(e) Intercropping

Q.7.Answer the following in about 400 words each:

(a) Define sustainable agriculture. What are the criteria of sustainability in agriculture system? What are the various approaches to achieve sustainability?

(b) Discuss the nitrogen losses from water-logged soil. What are the various practices to increase nitrogen use efficiency in submerged rice?

Q.8. Explain the following in about 200 words each:

(a) Persistence of weeds

(b) Factors affecting soil structure

(c) Broad-based extension

(d) Kisan Credit Card

IAS Mains Agriculture Paper 2013 ~ IAS Mains Agriculture Paper 2013

Paper 2

Section –A

Q.1. Answer the following questions in maximum of 150 words each:

  1. Discuss the usefulness of field inspection for seed certification.

  2. Briefly describe the molecular mechanisms involved in heterosis.

  3. Discuss the usefulness of autopolyploidy in crop improvement.

  4. Which measure of heritability (broad sense or narrow sense) will be appropriate for selection in a mixture of homozygous lines and for segregating generations. Explain the basis for your answer.

  5. Briefly describe the salient features of cytoplasmic inheritance, and give the reasons therefor.

Q.2. Discuss /Explain the reasons for the following in maximum of 200 words each:

  1. Purelines become genetically variable with time.

  2. Interspecific hybrids show variable degrees of sterility.

  3. Horizontal disease resistance is preferable to vertical resistance.

  4. Cross-pollinated species show more inbreeding depression then self-pollinated species.

Q.3. Write short notes on the following (maximum of 200 words each):

  1. The protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Act (2001).

  2. Classes of improved seed.

  3. Genetically modified food.

  4. Sex-influenced and sex-limited characters.

Q.4. Explain the following in maximum of 200 words each:

  1. Usefulness of somatic hybridization for creating genetic variation.

  2. Genetic consequences of repeated backcrossing.

  3. DNA Fingerprinting in plant variety registration/protection.

  4. Transgenic plants for disease/insect resistance.

Section –B

Q.5. Briefly describe the following in 150 words each:

  1. The mechanisms of ion transport across membranes.

  2. The relative responses of photosynthesis in C3 and C4 plants to temperature and CO2 concentration.

  3. The roles of curing and degreening in reducing post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables.

  4. Woolly apple aphid and its control.

  5. Various methods of planting onions, and post-harvest management of onions.

Q.6. Describe/Explain the following in 200 words each (maximum):

  1. Mechanism of translocation of water from roots to leaves.

  2. Powdery mildew of rose and its control.

  3. Effects of dormant pruning on trees.

  4. Use of root stocks in apple cultivation.

Q.7. Write short notes on the following in 200 words each (maximum):

  1. Water potential of plant cells.

  2. Fermentation for fruit and vegetable preservation.

  3. Cotton whitefly and its control.

  4. Cauliflower cultivation under the following heads: transplanting and post-harvest management.

Q.8. Discuss the following in 200 words each (maximum):

  1. Biochemical functions of N and K in plants.

  2. Role of gibberellins in plant growth and development.

  3. Preservation of fruits and vegetables by sugar.

  4. The strengths and weaknesses of the public distribution system in India.

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