IAS Mains Agriculture Paper 2014

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Paper 1

Section –A

Q.1. Answer the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Discuss ecological principles to develop productive and sustainable ecosystems.

  1. Explain Indian efforts towards environmental problem at international level.

  1. Describe the management of paddy-wheat cropping system having forecast o poor rain

  1. Describe the importance of organic farming with respect to nutritional value addition

  1. Describe biological weed control with suitable example.


  1. What are suitable agroecological management strategies?

  1. Explain ecological concept of productivity.

  1. Discuss the impact of short duration and long duration varieties on deterioration of soil health.


  1. Describe the package of practices for production of pigeonpea.

  1. Write the importance of quarantine check of week seeds in importing foodgrain.

  1. Define the theory of tolerance and relate it to the principle of plant distribution and adaptation.


  1. What are the important features of xerophytes for ecological adaptation?

  1. How agro-forestry plantation is helpful to the farmers?

  1. Describe crop-weed competition.

Section –B

Q.5. Answer the following in about 150 words each:-

  1. What are important soil animals? Write their contributions to soil.

  1. What are the major causes of global warming?

  1. What are various drainage system? Discuss their benefits.

  1. What is the role of Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) as a converging agency?

  1. Enumerate the procedures in developing farm plan and budget.


  1. Write a note on rain water harvesting and recharge of ground water.

  1. How does industrial effluent affect soil and water? Enumerate the methods of effluent management in agriculture.

  1. Discuss the mechanism of fixation of minimum support prices of agricultural products.


  1. How is a new technology assessed and refined?

  1. Why marketing information is considered important in agricultural marketing? Discuss the status of market intelligence in India.

  1. How to increase water absorption and retention capacity of soil?


  1. Who are the target group in agricultural extension? State the mechanism to reach such groups.

  1. Explain various farm management tools in farm planning.

  2. What do you understand by slow release nitrogen from nitrogenous fertilizers? What is its importance?

Paper 2

Section –A

Q.1. Answer the following in about 150 words each:

  1. “Aneuploids are generally weak, but they are useful in plant breeding”. Evaluate this statement in the light o available information.

  2. Explain the meaning of generic purity of seed. Briefly describe the various approaches for testing generic purity of seed.

  3. “Heterosis is observed in both self and cross-pollinated crops, but hybrid varieties are more common in cross-pollinated crops”. Comment on this statement on the basis of relevant information.

  4. Briefly describe the procedure for utilization of induced mutation in plant breeding.

  5. Highlight the various contributions of inter-specific hybridization in crop improvement.


  1. Discuss the role of National Seeds Corporation in quality seed production in India.

  1. Define pureline. Discuss the relevance of pureline selection in self- and cross-pollinated crops.

  1. Explain the use of cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility in hybrid seed production.

  1. Why do quantitative traits show continuous variation?


  1. Discuss the relevance of mode of reproduction in plant breeding.

  1. DNA is the generic material. How does DNA contribute to the development of various traits?

  1. Define general combining ability. Describe the procedure for recurrent selection for general combining ability

  1. What is plant disease epidemic? Why do disease epidemics occur? How can they be managed?

Q.4. Write notes in the following:

  1. TRIPS Agreement

  2. Somaclonal variation

  3. Gene cloning and development of transgenics

  4. Gene Banks

Section –B

Q.5. Answer the following in about 150 words each:

  1. What are the fundamental difference between transpiration and guttation? In a winter morning, water droplets might be noticed on some plant leaves. How could it be ascertained whether the water droplets were those of dew drops or guttation water?

  2. What is meant by ‘sigmoid’ growth curve? Draw and describe a sigmoid growth curve citing its different phases.

  3. Show full reactions where (i) Alcohol dehydrogenase, (ii) Nitrate reductase, (iii) Glucokinase and (iv) succinate dehydrogenase are involved, therewith mentioning respective co-factor, co-enzyme, prosthetic group etc., if so required.

  4. Differentiate between incipient wilting, temporary wilting and permanent wilting. Classify different types of droughts and incipient how are they related to each other.

  5. Write short note on Hill reaction. Prove that O2 evolved during photosynthesis comes from water and not from CO2.


  1. Define vernalization. How varnalization is activated in plants? Briefly discuss its importance in agriculture.

  1. Name the causal agent o black Sigatoka disease of banana. Enumerate the diagnostic symptoms of the disease. Suggest remedial measures to control the disease.

  1. Give an account of different types of water present in soil.

  1. Enumerate objectives of Integrated Child Development Service Scheme.


  1. Explain in brief Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS). What measures have been taken to increase transparency in the functioning of TPDS.

  1. Describe India’s food security system. Enumerate reasons for disturbance in food demand and supply.

  1. What are the key determinants of malnutrition? What major initiatives have been taken to improve nutritional status of Indian population?

  1. Briefly discuss handing method for export of mango.


  1. Describe the principles and practices of plant quarantine. Can import quarantine be exempted by submitting a phytosanitary certificate issued by the government of the exporting country? Also, are disinfestations of planning material in the exporting country prior to importation or disinfestations in transit performed on the high seas considered to fulfil the requirements for quarantine inspection?

  1. What is a pesticide formulation? Differentiate active ingredient from inert ingredient. Give at least two examples each of active and inert ingredients.

  1. Define jelly. Explain the principle of jelly formation. Briefly describe the preparation of jelly and enumerate problem in jelly making.

  1. What is meant by protective cultivation? Briefly discuss important o greenhouse in protective cultivation.

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