IAS Mains Agriculture Paper 2016

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Paper 1

Section –A

Q. 1. Describe the following in not more than 150 words each:


  1. Agroforestry and Agrostology

  1. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) vs Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)

  1. Farming system vs Mixed farming

  1. Decoy crop vs Trap crop

  1. Fertigation vs Herbigation



  1. List out the criteria for essentiality of nutrients. Differentiate between essential, beneficial and functional elements in plant nutrition. How are these nutrient element absorbed by the plants.

  1. Differentiate between soil fertility and soil productivity. What is meant by the organic matter content of good agricultural soil? Compare it with that of forest soil. Suggest ways to maintain soil organic matter content and improve crop productivity.

  1. What do you mean by the terms remote sensing and GIS? What are their application in agriculture and forestry?


  1. Write a brief note on the importance of pulses for sustainable future. Describe the international pulse year with its main objectives and strategies to enhance the production and availability of pulses.

  1. Describe the package of practices for raising a short duration pigeon pea. Discuss good agricultural practices (GAP) and their implications.

(c) Explain the critical period of crop-weed competition with suitable examples.


  1. Discuss the global initiatives and international conventions on climate change. What does NICRA stand for? What are the initiatives taken by the Indian Government in this regard?

  1. Briefly describe the various types of forestry plantations like social forestry, agroforestry and natural forests. What methods are employed for propagation of forest plants?

(c) List out the factors affecting efficacy of herbicides.

Section –B

Q.5 Describe the following in not more than 150 word each:

  1. Protected agriculture

  1. Phytostabilisation

  1. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendras

(d) Farm planning and Farm management

(e) Kisan Credit Card


  1. Differentiate between rainfed and irrigated agriculture. List out the major problem of rainfed agriculture. Describe the various soil moisture conservation measures to boost crop production in rainfed farming.

  1. Discuss the various methods of evaluation of extension programmes. Discuss the significance of Self-Help Groups for rural development, with successful examples.

  1. Describe the concept of market intelligence and explain the various problems in agricultural marketing system in India.


  1. Define agricultural extension. Differentiate between extension education and formal education. Discuss its importance in agricultural development.

  2. Explain various soil conservation methods and integrated watershed management approach. What is soil erosion? Discuss the methods of managing soil erosion.

  1. What are the important principles of farm management?


  1. Discuss the mechanism of fixation of minimum support prices of agricultural products.

  1. Discuss the significance of quality of irrigation water and rain-water harvesting for crop productivity. Describe how irrigation is scheduled in the critical stage of crop growth.

  1. Explain how industrial effluents affect soil and water pollution. What measures can be taken to reduce this impact?

Paper 2

Section –A

Q.1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each:

  1. Elaborate mendel’s law of ‘independent assortment’ by giving suitable example.

  2. Define ‘pure lines’ along with their characteristics. How are they used in crop improvement?

  3. Explain Intellectural Property Rights. Give the present status of IPR in relation to agriculture.

  4. Explain the mechanism of absorption of salts. Give potassium, calcium and iron deficiency symptoms in plants.

  5. Discuss sterility systems used in hybrid seed production. Briefly mention chemically induced male sterility.

Q.2. Answer the following questions:

  1. Define ‘general combining ability’. Explain the genetic basis and methods for estimating SCA in diallel mating system.

  2. What are the generic consequences of self- and cross-pollination?

  3. Discuss the sui generis protection of traditional knowledge.

  4. How is water absorbed by land plants? Explain various external conditions affecting water absorption by roots.

Q.3. Answer the following questions:

  1. Explain oxidative decarboxylation citing suitable example.

  2. Give evidence supporting translocation of organic solutes in phloem. Explain Ringing experiment.

  3. Given the seed from a male sterile line of corn, how would you determine if the sterility is genetic or cytoplansmic?

  4. Discuss the importance of gene pyramiding and gene introgression in developing disease-resistant cultivars.

Q.4. Answer the following questions:

  1. Discuss the practical application of mutations in wheat, rice and barley. Name two varieties of wheat released by the use of induced mutations in India.

  2. Give an account of mechanism of protein synthesis. Compare it with prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  3. Explain formal and informal seed supply systems in India.

  4. Differentiate between transpiration and guttation. Why permanent wilting takes place?

Section –B

Q.5.Answer the following questions in about 150 words each:

  1. What are the important new varieties of carnation? Explain the importance of pinching operation for producing quality carnation.

  2. Explain the connection between anaerobic and aerobic respiration.

  3. Compare the inoculative and augmentative releases of natural enemies for biological control of pests.

  4. Discuss the strength and weakness of public distribution system in the country.

  5. Describe the procedure of tissue culture for multiplying new cultivars of gladiolus.

Q.6. Answer the following questions:

  1. What are the special schemes for providing food grains to underprivileged, destitute and malnourished populations?

  2. Explain the production technology for commercial cultivation of marigold and aster flowers.

  3. Why are the concepts of economic threshold and economic injury levels important in IPM?

  4. Explain the phenomenon of passive absorption and give the factors affecting the rate of absorption of water.

Q.7. Answer the following questions:

  1. How does maturity control the post-harvest quality and storage life of fruits? Give maturity indices for some fruits and vegetables.

  2. Explain the present status of food and nutrition security in India.

  3. Discuss plant disease occurrence, epidemics and IDM.

  4. Explain the effect of concentration of enzyme on its activity. Give different methods for regulating the enzymic activity.

Q.8. Write notes on the following:

  1. Horizontal and vertical resistance

  2. Ionizing radiations and insect control

  3. Vascular wilt and xylem wilt

  4. Red flour beetle and Angoumois grain moth

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