IAS Mains Botany Paper 2009

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Section –A

Q.1 Answer any three of the following in not more than 200 words each :

  1. Name three enzymes commonly used for the isolation of plant protoplasts. Which of the following tissues would give a better yield of enzymatically isolated protoplasts and why?

    1. Aerenchyma

    2. Mesophyll

  2. What cellular/subcellular changes would demonstrate polarity induction in cell suspensions? How can these changes be demonstrated?

  3. Compare the methods of asexual and sexual reproduction in Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

  4. Compare the nature of photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrate reserves in Euglenophyta, Bacillariophyta and phaeophyta.

Q.2. Comment on the following (in about 200 worlds each) :

  1. Heterotrichous habit of growth in moss protonema

  2. Differences between hydroids and leptoids

  3. Structure of chloronema and caulonema cells in mosses

Q.3. Write brief notes on the following (in not more than 200 words each):

  1. Semi-moist preservation of food

  2. Fructifications in cup-fungi

  3. Microbes in the control of water pollution

Q.4 Write brief notes on the following (in not more than 200 words each):

  1. Iron bacteria

  2. Cleavage polyembryony

  3. Thallus organization in Chlorophyceae

Section –B

Q.5. Answer any three of the following in not more than 200 words each :

  1. Diagrammatically explain the structure-function relationship of plasmodesmata.

  2. Comment on the formation of amphivasal vascular bundles in dracaena.

  3. Name the genera belonging to phylum Gnetophyta. Mention their angiosperm like features, types of tracheary element and leaves.

  4. What are the salient features of bennettitales?

Q.6. With the help of well-labelled diagrams, explain the distinguishing features of the following :

  1. Porogamy and Chalazogamy

  2. Flower of Dolichos and Caesalpinia

  3. Ovule of Gnetum and Pinus

Q.7. Write critical notes on the following :

  1. Plants as sources of insecticides (Pyrethrin and Rotenone)

  2. Contributions of the following scientists in plant systematic :

    1. A. P. de Condolle

    2. Carl Linnacus

    3. Theophrastus

  3. Significance of Energy Plantations

Q.8. Discuss the following :

  1. Tetrasporic embryo sac

  2. Omega taxonomy with reference to chemical substances


Section –A

Q.1 Write short notes on any three in about 200 words each :

  1. Organelle genomes

  2. Tautomeric shifts and mutations

  3. Bidirectional synthesis of DNA in E. Coli

  4. Backcross method of breeding


  1. Distinguish between channels and carrier proteins and their roles in regulating membrane transport.

  2. Distinguish between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin.


  1. Discuss the origin, production and uses of haploids.

  2. Describe biosafety regulatory measures for raising transgenic crops.


    1. Comment briefly on the contributions made by Herman Nilsson-Ehle.

    2. List the important statistical methods of studying association and relationship between two variables.

  1. Give an account of the PCR based molecular markers and their applications in plant breeding.

Section –B

Q.5. Write short notes on any three in about 200 words each :

  1. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism

  2. Stomatal movements

  3. Hydrosere

  4. Kyoto Protocol and CDM


  1. Describe the mitochondrial electron transport chain and theories for ATP synthesis.

  2. Describe vernalization and its role in flowering.

Q.7. Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each :

  1. Leaf senescence

  2. Physiological effects of ethylene in plants

Q.8. Describe pathway of fixation. In what respects does it differ from the pathway ? Methion the specialized anatomical features associated with photosynthesis.

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