IAS Mains Botany Paper 2011

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Section –A

Q.1 Briefly describe the importance of the following :

  1. Somaclonal variation

  2. Lichens in environment

  3. Polarity

  4. Microbes in bioremediation

Q.2 Citing suitable examples, explain the following:

  1. What are prions and why is there a need to understand them thoroughly?

  2. How are moulds both a bane and boon for human beings?

  3. The embryo rescue techniques for successful raising of recombinants.

Q.3 Draw well labelled diagrams of the following:

  1. L.S. cone of Selaginella

  2. L.S. capsule of Funaria

  3. Sex organs of Chara

  4. Cleistothecia of Erysiphe and Phyllactinia


  1. Discuss the role of amphibious plants in the evolution of land plants.

  1. Describe to what extent has the technique of micropropagation been successful in achieving our goals.

  1. What is meant by modeling and how does it help in disease forecasting?

  1. Giving suitable reasons, describe inter-alia, evolutionary status of Psilotum, Selaginella and Marsilea.

Section –B

Q.5 What are the differences between the following :

  1. Systematics and Classification

  2. Fascicular and Cork cambium

  3. Megasporogenesis and Megagametogenesis

  4. Apiaceae and Umbelliferae


  1. What are Ubisch bodies ? How and where are these formed what is their role ?

  1. What is interxylary phloem ? How is it formed ? Support your reply with suitable examples and at least one diagram.

  1. Describe the characteristic features of the component on the basis of which the basic source/s of a sample of honey is/are determined.

  1. Citing suitable examples, explain how laxity in quarantine procedure can have disastrous effects.


  1. Citing suitable examples, defend the statement that “there is need to combine ethnobotany with IPR”.

  1. Describe various mechanisms employed to raise hybrids between incompatible species.

  1. Explain the role of macro and micro biomolecules in taxonomy.

  1. Describe the evolutionary status of Gnetum.

  1. What is Nemec phenomenon ? Comment on its significance.

Q.8 Describe the following :

  1. Energy plantations

  2. Gynoecium in Asclepiadaceae, Brassicacea and Poaceae

  3. Stomatal apparatus in Brassica, Dianthus and Poa.

  4. Pollinium

  5. Retting

  6. OTUs


Section –A


  1. What strategies are employed by plants for the uptake of iron under conditions of iron stress ?

  2. Describe about the factors that affect the recombination frequencies.

  3. Explain antisense RNA technology with an example. Highlight its applications.

  4. Explain the ecological significance of forests.


  1. Discuss the mechanism of T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant.

  2. Explain the concept of limiting factor in ecology.

  3. How can you identify the multigene families ? Discuss the significance of identical or non-identical genes of multigene families.

  4. Present the current model for long distance transport of floral stimulus.


  1. Comment on ‘EPSPS’ and ‘Tra’ genes.

  2. Explain the Theory of Age and Area.

  3. Discuss the mechanism of the regulation of gene activity in lactose operon with reference to -gelactosidase activity.

  4. What evidences support starch-statolith hypothesis for gravitropism ?


  1. Describe different methods of gene transfer in plants.

  2. Distinguish between monoploid and haploid and their role in evolution.

  3. Explain salient features of “The Environment Protection Act ” and mention how far it is effective in maintenance of the quality of environment.

  4. What is the chemical nature of saponins ? How do saponins provide defence against fungal attack on plants ?


Section –B


  1. Explain interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Comment on Raphano-brassica.

  2. What is eutrophication ? What are its impacts on the ecosystem?

  3. Explain how the chromatin modification leads to genome expression.

  4. Schematically present ethylene biosynthesis in plants. Describe/illustrate the ‘triple response’ due to ethylene.


  1. Explain the quantitavive characteristics of a plant community.

  2. Highlight the biosafety aspects arising out of plant genetic engineering.

  3. What is RNA splicing ? Describe the known mechanism of RNA splicing for group-II introns.

  4. What is an osmosensor ? How does a two-component sensing/signaling system contribute to osmosensing ?


  1. What is ‘Satpura hypothesis’ ? How does it explain discontinuous distribution of certain species?

  2. Explain the current developments in transgenic technology contributing to crop improvement.

  3. How can you prove that DNA is a generic material ? Describe with a suitable example.

  4. What are the major functions of cytoskeleton in living cells ?


  1. Give the basis of classification of Indian forests and give its outline.

  2. How will you identify the expression of a cloned gene ?

  3. Describe briefly, how RNA molecule transports within the enukaryotic cell.

  4. Compare the pattern of and ethylene production in a climacteric fruit.

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