IAS Mains Botany Paper 2016

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Section –A

Q.1 Briefly describe the following in not more than 150 words each :

(a) Role of microbes in mining and pharmaceuticals


(b) Ultrastructure of flagella in Algae

(c) Role of soil solarization in disease control

(d) Lytic cycle of bacteriophage

(e) Physiological relationship of two partners in Lichens


(a) Explain the molecular basis of infection and disease resistance in plants.

(b) Describe the characteristic features of Cyanobacteria and mention its role in nitrogen fixation.

(c) Write down the characters of pteridophytes resembling bryophytes and gymnosperms.


(a) Discuss the evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes.

(b) Trace the transition from multisporangia to conidia in Mucorales with illustrations and suitable examples.

(c) Describe the different stages in the development of female gametophyte within the ovule in Cycas.

Q.4 Give the name of the causal organism, symptoms and control measures of any four important crop diseases caused respectively by

(a) a fungus

(b) a bacterium

(c) a virus

(d) a mycoplasma

Section –B

Q.5 Briefly describe the following in not more than 150 words each :

(a) Forensic application of palynology

(b) Procedure and maintenance of Herbarium

(c) Tumour cells and their culture

(d) Xylem and phloem differentiation

(e) Energy plantations


(a) Describe the principles and application of embryo culture techniques, mentioning the protocol for embryo culture.

(b) Write an account of the following families in regard to their floeral structures. Give the botanical names of three important plant species belonging to each of the families and specify their uses :

(i) Asclepiadaceae

(ii) Musaceae

(iii) Apiaceae


(a) Discuss the principle and application of Numerical Taxonomy.

(b) Give the botanical names of latex yielding plants with narcotic properties and also write the names of the plant-parts used therein.

(c) How anthers and pollens are cultured in vitro ? Discuss its importance in the production of haploid plants.


(a) Compare and contrast the systems of classification of angiosperms proposed by Hutchinson and Takhtajan.

(b) Differentiate between normal and abnormal secondary growth in dicot stem. Discuss with suitable examples. Draw labelled diagrams.

(c) Write notes on the following :

(i) Heart wood and Sap wood

(ii) Different types of trichomes


Section –A

Q.1 Explain the following :

(a) Polyteny differs from polyploidy

(b) Factors affecting recombination frequencies

(c) Chi-square test as a test of goodness of fit

(d) C-value paradox

(e) Chemical mutagens


(a) Explain and describe the tools and techniques of FISH.

(b) Describe the basic structure of a nucleosome.

(c) “The consequences of translocations are profound. They lead not only to a change in gene likeage in the translocated sections but also to easily incurred meiotic abnormalities.” Discuss.


(a) Citing suitable evidences, explain plastid inheritance in four o’clock plant.

(b) Discuss Inbreeding depression versus Heterosis.

(c) How does the Ins /DAG pathway participate in the process of translocation of cellular signals ?

Q.4 Briefly describe the characteristics and application of the following :

(a) Back cross method

(b) Restriction endonucleases

(c) Transgenic plants as living bioreactors

(d) Molecular markers

(e) Retroviruses as vectors

Section –B

Q.5 Explain the following :

(a) Apoenzyme

(b) Ethylene as a volatile hormone

(c) Soil salinity also restricts the growth of plants

(d) Taiga or Boreal forests

(e) “The pyramid of energy always takes a true upright shape.” Why ?


(a) Describe the role of glyoxysomes in conversion of fats into more mobile molecules.

(b) Distinguish between phloem loading and phloem unloading.

(c) What is Niche overlap ? Narrate the biogeographic classifications of India.


(a) What are the functions of the enzymes which need copper, zinc and molybdenum as their co-factors ?

(b) Enumerate the effects of oil spillage and suggest the control and remedial measures of it.

(c) Define ecological succession. Describe the causes and basic types of ecological succession.


(a) Recycling is an integral part of solid waste management

(b) OTEC

(c) Allosteric enzymes and feedback control

(d) Biodafety and Bioremediation

(e) Solar pond

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