IAS Mains Geog Paper 1 2014 Section A

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IAS Geography 2014 Paper Paper1 – Section A

1(a) Define the term ‘meander’ and describe the basic characteristics of entrenched meander and ingrown meander.

Entrenched – Symmetrical, Quick down cutting,

Speed and no lateral erosion

Ingrown – Asymmetrical, less rapid, lateral and

Vertical erosion occurs

Q.1(a) image

Q.1(A) Image

Q.1(a) image

1(b) Discuss the salient features of ‘sirocco’ and ‘mistral’.

Features of sirocco and mistral

Features of Sirocco and Mistral

Features of sirocco and mistral

  • Sirocco- Mediterranean wind that comes from the Sahara and can reach hurricane speeds in North Africa and Southern Europe (Warm, dry, tropical)

  • Mistral is a strong, cold, northwesterly wind from southern France into the Gulf of Lion in the northern Mediterranean

  • 1(c) Give an account of the nature of biosphere as an ecosystem.

    The nature of biosphere as an ecosystem

    The Nature of Biosphere as an Ecosystem

    The nature of biosphere as an ecosystem

1(d) State the uniqueness of the Eurasian Steppe Biome.

  • Temperate grassland/ savanna or shrublands

  • Extent: Moldavia to Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang and Mongolia to Manchuria

  • Nomadic activity

  • Silk road

  • Little rainfall – Short grasses

  • Soil – rich in minerals and lack organic matter

  • Grazing animals

1(e) Illustrate the origin and nature of Sargasso Sea and Lagoon.

  • Sargasso Sea lies entirely within Atlantic Ocean, is the only sea without a land boundary. – Vulnerable to climate change

  • Known for seaweed – Sargassum (obstructs navigation)

  • Home to numerous marine species

  • North Atlantic Water got trapped in anticyclonic circulation of North Equatorial Current, Gulf Stream and Canary Current (all with high velocity) so no connection with other waters so becomes calm and motionless.

  • Air subsidence, less mixing of waters, higher salinity & evaporation

2(a) State the concept of plate tectonics. How does it help in explaining the formation of the Himalayas and Appalachian Mountains?

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Plate Tectonics - 5 Elements, 3 Process and 3 Boundaries with Illustrations Plate Tectonics - 5 Elements, 3 Process and 3 Boundaries with Illustrations
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2(b) Describe the origin and development of thunderstorms with examples.

  • Origin – Air mass gets unstable, unstable air mass expands and cool & water vapour condense into cloud release heat, make air mass warm and rises further.

  • Updraft – Warm moist air rises vertically create cumulus and thunderstorm cloud

  • Cumulus Stage – Heats and lighter air moves up

  • Mature Stage – Cumulus cloud becomes large and heavy

  • Dissipating Stage – Downdraft begins

    The origin and development of thunderstorms

    The Origin and Development of Thunderstorms

    The origin and development of thunderstorms

2(c) Enumerate the major causes of increasing degradation of environment in hills and hill slopes, and state its down-valley impact.

  • Unplanned construction

  • Deforestation

  • Population Growth

  • Shifting Cultivation

  • Habitat Destruction

  • Landslides – Uttarakhand

  • Migration to Downvalley

  • Flash Flooding

  • Water Pollution

  • Lumbering – Paper Mills

  • Washing of fertile soil in Downvalley

  • Green Tax

  • Restrict Tourist Vehicles

  • Initiatives like Green Zone in Matheran

  • Hill Area Development Program

3(a) Discuss the nature and origin of Indian monsoon and recent techniques of its prediction.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Indian Monsoon - Factors, Theories, Phenomena & Characteristics Indian Monsoon - Factors, Theories, Phenomena & Characteristics
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8 land, ocean and wind parameters to predict monsoon (previous models used 16 parameters)

6 parameters were retained

From deterministic to probabilistic forecast – use statistical methods

Dynamic approach uses physical variables like pressure and wind velocity

3(b) State the concept of erosion surfaces and highlight the factors responsible for their development.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Denudational Chronology - 4 Unconformities & 4 Methods of Dating Erosional Surfaces Denudational Chronology - 4 Unconformities & 4 Methods of Dating Erosional Surfaces
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  • Plain surface with low relief – Davis and Penck

  • Unconformities – Demarcates 2 rock mass of different ages

  • Hard and Soft Rock –

  • Erosion Agents – Water, Wind, Waves

3(c) Give a critical account of reasons and consequences of marine pollution.

  • Toxic waste

  • Depleting oxygen

  • Affect coral reefs

  • Food Chain

  • Bio magnification

  • Human Health

  • Sewage

  • Toxic chemicals

  • Land runoff

  • Large scale Oil Spill

  • Ocean Mining

  • Littering

  • Main - Cu

4(a) Explain weathering and mass wasting, and describe their geomorphic significance.

Weathering:

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Weathering & Erosion - 3 Types and 6 Agents Weathering & Erosion - 3 Types and 6 Agents
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Mass Wasting:

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Mass Wasting and Landslides - Types, Components, Causes and Prone Areas Mass Wasting and Landslides - Types, Components, Causes and Prone Areas
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4(b) Define zoogeographic region. Also describe the basic faunal makeup of the Nearctic zoogeographic region.

Wallace Distribution

Nearctic - North America & Greenland

Similar to Palearctic, Together with Palearctic known as Holarctic

  • Tundra species like muskox, wolf, & polar beer

  • Temperate coniferous species like mule, deer, & lynx

  • Grassland species like Siaga & wild ass

  • Deciduous animals like raccoons & red fox

  • Desert species like snakes & hedgehogs

4(c) Give an account of recent observations on coral bleaching with reference to Clive Wilkinson’s Report.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Why Coral Bleaching Occurs? 8 Major Causes & Human Intervention Why Coral Bleaching Occurs? 8 Major Causes & Human Intervention
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  • Increase in Sea Surface Temperature, La Nina, El Nino in 1997-98 led to coral bleaching

  • Hottest years – 1997/98, 2003, 2004 and 2005 while main bleaching in 1998 and 2005

  • Warm Waters, Rising , Sea level rise

  • Clive Findings (was former global coordinator of Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network - GCRMN): direct anthropogenic stress of nutrient pollution, excessive sediments, over-exploitation at local sites near concentration of people

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