IAS Mains Geog Paper 1 2014 Section B

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IAS Geography 2014 Paper Paper1 –Section B

5(a) Elaborate the concept of mental map.

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  • Objective knowledge + Subjective perceptions (places we have been and we never have been)

  • How people interact, how people feel, what people eat …..

5(b) Give an account of food security issues in developing countries.

  • Lack of purchasing power

  • Underdeveloped agriculture with large labour force, large GDP,

  • Policy issues – Taxation and exports, Maintain low food price

  • Protection & subsidization of agriculture in developed nations

  • Reduction commitments on domestic support

  • Exemptions under the de minimis threshold

  • Special and differential treatment provisions

  • “Green box" policies

  • Export Subsidies

  • Marrakesh decision

  • Accession to WTO

    Food security issues in developing countries

    Food Security Issues in Developing Countries

    Food security issues in developing countries

5(c) Discuss the factors responsible for counter-urbanisation.

  • Push Factors (movement away from cities)- higher rates of congestion- high land values – hard to find affordable housing- higher crime rates- higher pollution

  • Pull Factors (movements to the countryside)- perceived better quality of life- believed to be a safer & pleasant environment - less pollution and more open space- lower land-values and more affordable housing- more businesses locating on greenfield sites – option of expansion

5(d) Explain the relevance of bottom-up and top-down approaches in the development of agrarian economy.

Niti Ayog (inclusive growth)

5(e) Critically analyse application of models in Geography.

  • Simplifies, describes and analyzes complex relations

  • Represent reality in systematic way

  • Helps in generalization and prediction of observations

  • Acts as bridge between observational and theoretical levels

  • Helps to arrive at quantification and formal measurement

  • Removes language barrier

  • Models can be theoretical, stochastic, simulation, mathematical and analogue

6(a) Explain the necessary conditions of take-off and subsequent stages of development of a nation as propounded by Rostow.

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6(b) Discuss environmental and economic problems associated with coal production.

  • Affects climate change – causes global warming

  • Acid mine drainage

  • Release of harmful gases into atmosphere

  • Degradation of groundwater

  • Floods and slurry that goes to water – causing pollution

  • Disproportionately benefits better off in society

  • Coal when burned for electricity – corrodes copper circuits – failure of motherboards in computers

  • Leads to Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or black lung disease

6(c) Discuss the contribution of geographers in the development of radical geography.

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7(a) Giving suitable examples, describe the importance of system analysis in geographical studies.

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7(b) “Rural sustainability is necessary for urban sustainability.” Discuss the statement in the backdrop of integrated development approach.

  • Coordinate agencies under single management systems

  • Maintain adequate supplies to rural areas

  • Provide adequate farm credits

  • Educational, technical and farm management assistance

  • Sustainability and inclusiveness

  • Moving from integrated to INTEGRAL development

7(c) “Indo-Gangetic hearth is considered to be one of the world’s richest cultural realms.” Examine.

  • Historically – land of Indus valley civilization

  • Led by admixture of Turk, Afghan, Persian with native Hindu, Buddhist culture

  • Origin of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism

  • Languages - Punjabi, Hindi, Bengali, Braj, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Urdu

  • Diverse agriculture

8(a) Explain the qualitative and quantitative methods of delineation of the sphere of urban influence.

Huff’s Model, Gravity Model, Breaking Point Theory

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8(b) “World is passing through a global resource dilemma.” Comment.

  • Lack of raw material, trained youth

  • Issues related to food and water

  • Have secure, reliable and affordable supplies of energy

  • Manage transition to low carbon energy system (due to climate change)

  • Globalization driving the global shift in energy

8(c) “Food productivity with purity of ecosystem is the need of the hour.” Elaborate.

  • Conserving ecosystem

  • Impurities leads to bio-magnification

  • Increase production to feed rising population

  • Restore degraded land areas

  • Conservation is integral part of food production

  • Manage uncertainties

  • Focus on incentives and subsidies

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