IAS Mains Geog Paper 2 2015 Youtube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: IAS Mains Geography Optional 2015 Solutions: Paper 1 Section A IAS Mains Geography Optional 2015 Solutions: Paper 1 Section A
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IAS Geography 2015 Paper Paper2

1(a) Map Location

IAS Mains Geography Questions

1(b) Why does the pharmaceutical industry concentrate largely in the western region of the country?

  • Footloose Industry

  • Ease of doing business

  • Entrepreneurship (temporal trait)

  • Good connectivity (Rail, Ocean, Road and Air)

  • Skilled manpower

  • Proximity to financial capital of India

  • Proximity to petrochemical hubs

  • Gujarat – 4% population and 40% medicine manufacturing

  • 40% rise in API (active) and 60% rise in formulations

  • Tax holiday states

1(c) Explain the pattern of winter rainfall in India.

  • Winters: Monsoon winds get reversed to North eastern winds.

  • Most of them are dry due to coming from land mass, but the Bay of Bengal branch picks the moisture from Sea and yields rainfall particularly in Tamil Nadu.

  • Important for sowing rabi & for plantation crops

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Indian Monsoon - Factors, Theories, Phenomena & Characteristics Indian Monsoon - Factors, Theories, Phenomena & Characteristics
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1(d) Discuss the relationship of watershed approach to village level planning.

  • Integrated cross-sectoral approach

  • Recognizes 5 capital assets: Human, natural, financial, social & physical resources

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Watershed Management - 5 Components & 4 Landmarks (Special Focus on India) Watershed Management - 5 Components & 4 Landmarks (Special Focus on India)
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1(e) How does natural vegetation affect the formation of in situ soils?

  • Plant debris is important in soil formation

  • Root system – Tap root or fibrous roots

2(a) Account for the geographical distribution of groundwater resources of India. How serious is its depletion in recent decades?

Geographical distribution of groundwater resources of India

Groundwater Resources of India

Geographical distribution of groundwater resources of India

2(b) Why is the traditional crafts industry in India on the decline?

  • Unable to meet the cost of machine made goods

  • Unable to produce in bulk

  • Lack of technology – obsolete equipment's

  • Demand for foreign and branded products

  • Disappearance of patronage of nawabs and rajas

2(c) Explain how modernization of Indian agriculture is affected by unfavourable institutional factors with suitable examples.

  • Smaller land holdings – lack of mechanization

  • 82% farmers have less than 2 hectare of land holdings

    Q-2(c) Image

    Q-2(C) Image

    Q-2(c) Image

3(a) Distinguish between ‘agricultural productivity' and ‘agricultural efficiency’, and bring out the disparity in regional distribution of agricultural efficiency.

  • Productivity – Output in relation to resources used or conversion of inputs into outputs

  • Efficiency: Doing the right things in a rightful manner.

  • Firm A: 5 raw material, 2 labor, 3 capital -> 6 output in one year.

  • Firm B: 10 raw material, 2 labor, 3 capital -> 10 output in one year.

  • Firm A is more efficient as it is using less raw material per unit of output

  • Firm B is more productive as it is producing more output

3(b) With the help of a map, indicate the principal areas of dryland farming in the country and account for farmers' suicides mainly in those areas.

  • Crop failure

  • Family issues – Joint landholding

  • Debt burden

  • Price crash

  • Failure of bore wells

  • Prevalent use of pesticides

  • GM crops – High prices

  • Highest suicide rates in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Kerala

3(c) Evaluate the contribution of Communication and Information Technology to the development of economy and society, and examine the relevance of the recently launched 'Digital India' programme.

  • Information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) refers to application of information and communication technologies (ICTs) toward social, economic, and political development mainly for poor and marginalized people

  • Program envisaged by Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY)

  • e-governance

  • Digital literacy

  • Broadband connectivity

  • Public internet Access program

  • Electronics manufacturing

  • IT training

4(a) Account for the growing frequency and intensity of floods in India, and suggest short- and long-term remedial measures indicating the chronically flood-prone areas.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Floods & Droughts in India - Causes, Impact & Control Measures Floods & Droughts in India - Causes, Impact & Control Measures
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4(b) How does climate change affect the process of desertification of India?

  • Desertified land: Rajasthan (23 Mha), Gujarat, Maharashtra and Jammu and Kashmir (13 Mha each); Orissa and Andhra Pradesh (5 Mha each).

  • Deforestation, cutting beyond permissible limits, unsustainable fuelwood and fodder extraction, shifting cultivation, encroachment into forest lands, forest fires, overgrazing, inadequate soil conservation measures, improper crop rotation, indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals, improper management of irrigation systems and excessive extraction of ground water.

4(c) Discuss the scope of replication of ‘White Revolution’ in India.

  • Operation Flood in 1970s

  • Increase income

  • Reduce dependence

  • Alternate source of income

  • Ideas to replicate white revolution to IT – Digital India – IT in rural areas

  • 7 lakh km of optic fibre cables in next 3 years to help over 2.5 lakh village panchayats get high speed connectivity

  • Decrease import of electronics (next biggest import after crude oil)

  • Establish electronic clusters with 25% incentive on investment

5(a) Map Location


5(b) “Age-sex pyramid is representative of the history of a region.” Explain.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Population Theories, Population Pyramids & Overpopulation: Fundamentals of Geography Population Theories, Population Pyramids & Overpopulation: Fundamentals of Geography
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5(c) "Mono-functional towns are economically vulnerable.” Discuss.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Functional Classification of Towns - Ashok Mitra, Shekhar Mukherjee and M.K. Jain Functional Classification of Towns - Ashok Mitra, Shekhar Mukherjee and M.K. Jain
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5(d) Explain how change in land use can promote eco-development at different levels in the country.

  • Human footprint affected 83% of global terrestrial land surface and degraded 60% of ecosystems services in past 50 years

  • Environmental Kuznets curve: Decline in forest extent as the economy grows and an increase after reaching a threshold.

  • 17.4% of greenhouse gases come from anthropogenic sources mainly deforestation and forest degradation

  • Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD).

5(e) Discuss the social and spatial ramifications of increasing longevity.

  • Policy changes in the areas of labour, health, pensions and retirement, education, social benefits are necessary

  • Fund managers, pension funds and life insurance companies need to also re-assess their current frameworks

  • For 1st time, in 2045, people 60 or older will be higher than the number of children worldwide.

  • By 2050, older people will double to 22% of the total population.

  • Among older people, fastest growing group is people age 80 or over. Today, about one in seven older adults is over 80.

6(a) Decentralized planning through the strengthening of the Panchayat system is the focus of planning in India in recent times. Suggest a blueprint for an integrated regional development plan.

Integrating and bringing together policies

Integrating and bringing together policies

Integrating and Bringing Together Policies

Integrating and bringing together policies

6(b) In population planning, the thrust of the Government has been ‘planning the population' not ‘plan for the population'. Elaborate.

  • Rapid socioeconomic development is the best contraceptive for controlling India's population.

  • Education program to increase marriage age, prevent children from entering the labor market, increase female education levels, provide old age pension and social security and maternity benefits for small families.

  • Short term measures provide temporary or permanent methods of averting births

6(c) Is planning for a cluster of villages a viable option, when planning for backward areas of the country? Discuss with suitable examples.

  • Example – Chitrakoot in MP

  • For 100 or so villages in each tehsil, a central town with a population of about 50,000 will be created with urban facilities.

  • New town will accommodate teachers, doctors, agricultural extension workers, agro-industries, etc. and will be made on lines of Special Economic Zones having rules on land, labour, transport, education, health, etc.

  • Town will be managed by rural communities to serve along with representatives of the urban community. Infrastructure will be developed along the principles of sound urban development before the inflow of residents begins.

7(a) Reduction in regional disparities has been one of the priority goals of national planning in India. How the proposed new Smart urban centres may contribute to the process?

Watch video lecture on YouTube: 3 Urban Mega Schemes - Smart City Mission, AMRUT & PMAY - Key MAP Locations 3 Urban Mega Schemes - Smart City Mission, AMRUT & PMAY - Key MAP Locations
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7(b) How has India’s ‘Look East’ policy taken shape in the past two decades and how it may affect India's external trade?

  • Promote relations with East and SE Asian nations mainly ASEAN Nations - in 1992

  • Renew political contacts

  • Enhance economic interactions

  • Strengthen defence and strategic linkages

  • Change “Look East” to “Act East”

7(c) Indian island territories are vulnerable to the sea level rise. Explain.

  • 1,238 Indian islands are vulnerable to loss of coastal wetlands including mangroves and salt water intrusion in fresh water aquifers.

  • Susceptible to frequent and more intense tropical cyclones and associated storm surge, droughts, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions

  • Island Protection Zone (IPZ) in 2011 to ensure livelihood security to the local communities, conserve and protect coastal stretches, and promote development

  • Frequent Flood

  • Submergence

  • Loss of Satellite Launch stations

  • Region 12 to 180N is least vulnerable

  • Most vulnerable is low lying atolls of Lakshadweep

8(a) Discuss the concept of multi-level planning as practised in India, and explain the implications of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in this respect.

  • 73rd (Panchayats) and 74th (Municipalities) Constitutional Amendments – Democratic Decentralization & Local Self-Governance

  • Economic Development

  • Social Justice

  • Balwant Rai Mehta Committee – 3 Tier System – Idea of planning from below

8(b) Give a reasoned account of river water disputes related to the River Krishna.

  • Interstate River Water Disputes Act, 1956 to resolve disputes between Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh over sharing of Krishna river water.

  • Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal (KWDT – I and II) – Telangana wants a fresh tribunal after separation

8(c) Outline the Government of India’s strategies of conservation of the Western Ghats.

  • Home to 325 globally threatened flora, fauna, bird, amphibian, reptile and fish species.

  • UNESCO World heritage centre – World’s 8 hottest hotspot of biodiversity

  • Gadgil and Kasturiranjan reports

  • Entire Western Ghats region into an Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA) – 4 Parts

  • Western Ghats Ecology Authority (WGEA) to be established

  • Ban on mining, quarrying, thermal power plants and highly polluting industries within 60,000 sq km of the Ghats

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