IAS Mains Geography 2016 Paper 1-Section-1Youtube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: IAS Mains Geography Optional 2016 Solutions: Paper 1 Section A IAS Mains Geography Optional 2016 Solutions: Paper 1 Section A
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IAS Mains Geography 2016 Paper 1 Section A

1 a. Describe the “Basket of eggs topography”.

Glacial Topography

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Glacial Landforms: 25 Erosional & 3 Depositional Features Glacial Landforms: 25 Erosional & 3 Depositional Features
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1 b. Differentiate between insolation and temperature and explain anomalous temperature.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Temperature - Insolation, Heat Transfer, 3 Lapse Rate & 4 Scales in Climatology Temperature - Insolation, Heat Transfer, 3 Lapse Rate & 4 Scales in Climatology
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  • Anamoly: Departure from reference value or long term average

  • +ve anamoly: Observed value is warmer than reference value

  • -ve anamoly: Observed value is cooler than reference value

1 c. Discuss maritime zone.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Laws of the Sea - Understanding the 3 Conventions & 5 Zones Laws of the Sea - Understanding the 3 Conventions & 5 Zones
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1 d. Bring out the ecological significance of Tropical Rainforest Biome.

  • Most diverse, wettest and high humidity

  • Direct sunlight, less variation in temperature

  • Nutrient poor, heavy rain leaches away nutrients

  • High diversity of decomposers

  • Ex, Borneo: 15,000 plant species, including 2,500 species of orchids

  • Madagascar: Unique home of lemurs

  • Asia: Proboscis monkeys, macaque monkeys, langurs, gibbons and orangutans.

  • Best Carbon Sinks - Recent issues of greenhouse effect

  • Store water like sponge

  • Home to indigenous people

  • Home to medicines – around 25% originate here

1 e. Explain the hydro-meteorological hazards in the Himalayas.

  • Natural hazards like earthquakes, avalanche, glacial lake outburst flood, debris flow, floods, landslides, thunderstorm, fire, cold and hot waves, etc.

  • Along with anthropogenic hazards aggravate and degrade the fragile eco-systems, put human lives at risk, and cause economic losses

  • Fast snow melting, retreating glaciers, vertical shift in snowline, decrease in amount of snowfall, appearance of new glacial lakes and increase in their size and volume.

2 a. “In explaining the concept of ‘Pedi planation’, King combined the ideas of Davis, Penck and Wood with his own.” Elaborate.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: 3 Geomorphic Cycles of Slope Development - Davis, Penck and King 3 Geomorphic Cycles of Slope Development - Davis, Penck and King
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  • King used 4 slope elements which were initially proposed by ‘wood'.

  • Four-unit model: By A. Wood in 1943

    • Waxing Slope

    • Free Face

    • Debris Slope

    • Waning Slope

2 b. Compare the origin and weather conditions associated with the tropical and temperate cyclones.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: 3 Geomorphic Cycles of Slope Development - Davis, Penck and King 3 Geomorphic Cycles of Slope Development - Davis, Penck and King
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2 c. Give a reasoned account on how the impact of global warming differs from one part of the earth to the other.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming: 5 Key Aspects Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming: 5 Key Aspects
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  • Ocean warm – Sea Level Rise – capacity decreases

  • Ocean is biggest absorber of

Bigger and denser trees – Promote growth of trees

3 a. Discuss the significance of world climate research Programme (WCRP) and core projects in the understanding of climatic change.

  • Estb. 1980 by International Council for Science & World Meteorological Organization.

  • Sponsored by Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO since 1993

  • Develop fundamental scientific understanding of the physical climate system and climate processes to predict extent of human influence on climate

  • Includes global atmosphere, oceans, sea ice, land ice and land surface

  • Foundation for Agenda 21

  • Along with International Geosphere-Biosphere Program & International Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Program, WCRP provides framework for study of global climate change.

3 b. “The relation between the winds and the currents is best seen in the Indian Ocean”. Justify.

Winds and the currents is best seen in the Indian Ocean

Winds and the Currents is Best Seen in the Indian Ocean

Winds and the currents is best seen in the Indian Ocean

  • Monsoons

  • Limited extent of water in the Northern Hemisphere & limited communication with the Pacific Ocean along the eastern boundary.

  • N. Hemi Winter: North Equatorial Current and South Equatorial Current flow toward the west, with the weaker, eastward Equatorial Countercurrent flowing between them

  • N. Hemi Summer: North Equatorial Current

& Equatorial Countercurrent are replaced

by SW Monsoon Current, which flows eastward & SE across Arabian Sea & Bay of Bengal

3 c. Write a critical note on the tendency of “Use and throw” in the context of economic status and environment.

  • Consumerism, e-waste, increase toxicity

  • Overconsumption & disposable items

  • Create environment unsustainable

  • Key: Life Cycle Thinking - Deeper understanding, Eco designs

  • Products and packaging comprise 71% of US solid waste

  • Cradle-to-Grave – Take, Make, Waste System

4 a. Bring out the various ecological problems associated with the exploitation and use of oceans and their resources.

  • Unsustainable fishing

    • 52% of fish stocks are fully exploited

    • 20% are moderately exploited & 17% are overexploited

    • 7% are depleted & 1% is recovering from depletion

  • Overexploitation of oil and gas

  • Tourism Activities

  • Pollution – Sewerage

  • Climate Change - Coral bleaching, rising sea levels, changing species distributions

  • Trophic cascading effects: Top-level predators are removed resulting in indirect effects

  • Ghost fishing: Fishing nets that have been left or lost in the ocean by fishermen.

4 b. “Geological structure has a dominant control on landforms and is reflected on them.” Discuss.

  • One of the 10 fundamental concepts given by Thornbury

  • Except for regions of very recent diastrophism, it is safe to assume that areas which are topographically high are underlain by "hard" rocks & those which are low by "weak" rocks

4 c. Describe Newbigin’s scheme of Floristic regions of the world and explain the Mediterranean Floristic region.

Newbigin (1950) gave 5 regions for the world:

  • Northern lands (Holarctic)

  • Mediterranean - Fynbos biome, fire-prone shrubland & eco-tourism, winter rain, endemic species (22,500 vascular species), biodiversity hotspot, mainly Proteaceae with genera like Protea, Leucospermum (pincushions) & Leucadendron (silver tree & cone bushes), endangered fauna - Mediterranean monk seal, Barbary macaque & Iberian lynx

  • Northern Paleo tropical Desert

  • Intertropical (tropics of America, Africa & E. Asia)

  • Austral (southern parts of southern continents)

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