IAS Mains Geography 2016 Paper 2 Youtube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: IAS Mains Geography Optional 2016 Solutions: Paper 2 Section A and B IAS Mains Geography Optional 2016 Solutions: Paper 2 Section a and B
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IAS Mains Geography 2016 Paper 2Section a & B

1a. Map location

IAS Mains Geography Questions

1 b. Explain the shifting of river courses and river capturing in the Himalayas.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: 3 Himalayan Rivers, 4 West & 4 East Flowing Peninsular Rivers - Drainage System in India 3 Himalayan Rivers, 4 West & 4 East Flowing Peninsular Rivers - Drainage System in India
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River capturing is caused by headword erosion of river (which joins and captures the water of its neighboring stream)

Saraswati – Initially Churu and shifted to Ahmadpur and joined Satluj

Gaur city on Ganga: Capital of the Pala dynasty, river shifted course & now deserted

1 c. Mention the space relationship of India with neighbouring countries.

Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries

Relationship of India with Neighbouring Countries

Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries

  • Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Bangladesh.

  • Considering PoK, Afghanistan is also one of India’s neighbors.

  • Sri Lanka – Palk Strait

  • Maldives – South of Lakshadweep

  • Myanmar on the immediate east

1 d. Define agricultural intensity and bring out its regional distribution in India.

  • Raising productivity by increasing inputs

  • Highest: Punjab (176%), Himachal Pradesh (169%), West Bengal (157%), Haryana (145%) and Uttar Pradesh (143%)

  • Low: Dry, rainfed regions of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka (110-125%)

2 a. Discuss the role of spatial pattern of rainfall and temperature in the delimitation of climatic regions of India especially with reference to stamp’s climatic regionalization.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Indian Monsoon - Factors, Theories, Phenomena & Characteristics Indian Monsoon - Factors, Theories, Phenomena & Characteristics
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isotherm to divide nation: temperate or continental zone in north & tropical zone in south.

2 b. Describe the flood-prone area and their management problems in the Ganga plains.

  • North bank of Ganga R. caused by northern tributaries of Ganga

  • UP, Bihar, and West Bengal are worst affected

  • In eastern Uttar Pradesh, floods in Sarada, Ghagra, Rapti & Gandak R.

  • In Haryana, floods in Yamuna R.

  • Drainage and Embankments, are two of the measures specifically mentioned in entry 17 of List II (State List)

  • Ganga Flood Control Commission (1972)

  • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)

  • Central Water Commission (CWC)

  • National Flood Commission (Rashtriya Barh Ayog) – 1980

  • National Flood Commission-2003 (R Rangachari Committee)

  • National Water Policy ( 1987/ 2002/2012)

  • 2 c. Explain the New Industrial Policies in India.

  • 1st Industrial policy 1948

  • Industrial policy changed in 1956 in public sector dominated industrial development policy

  • In 1991, far reaching changes were made - LPG

3 a. Identify the important biotic resource regions of India and highlight their problems.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Marine Resources - In 3 Simple Categories Marine Resources - in 3 Simple Categories
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3 b. Point out the ethnic disparities in the N-E India.

  • Out of the six international boundaries India shares with neighbors, five (about 5,000 km) touch the NER-China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Bangladesh.

  • Has rich natural and human resources, strategic location, rich resource endowments, special initiatives and attention

  • Naga insurgencies since 1950s

3 c. Give an account of the development of renewable resources of India.

  • Increased by 25%

  • Wind – 10 times

  • Solar – Increased to 2500 MW

  • Biomass

  • Waste to Power

  • Hydel Power

  • Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM)

  • Wind Mission

  • Integrated Energy Policy, 2006

4 a. Bring out the development of river water transport in India and its role in regional development.

  • National Waterways

  • Contributes a substantial section in countries like China

  • Passenger and Cargo Movement

  • Cheap, efficient, adequate, safe, and environmentally friendly

4 b. Explain the impact of economic development on environmental degradation in India.

  • Increased Emission

  • Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC): B/w economic growth & environment is positive

  • Growth is a prerequisite for environmental improvement

  • Meet Carbon stabilization goals

    • Switch to more efficient technology with less energy consumption

    • Use alternative feedstock with lower carbon content

    • Establish carbon capture and geological storage

    • Utilize as feedstock for industrial applications

4 c. Describe the distribution of black soils in India and their specific user for agriculture.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Marine Resources - In 3 Simple Categories Marine Resources - in 3 Simple Categories
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5 a. Discuss the factors influencing the distribution of sex ratio in India.

  • Mostly the male-dominant community

  • Small populations are more likely to have skewed sex ratios if sex differences in survival

  • Income level

  • Medical facilities

  • Variation in economic growth

  • Differences in female education

  • Religion

5 b. “The Bokaro Iron and Steel plant is an example of Industrial Complex”. Explain

  • Example of vertical complex – Industrial units are vertically integrated

  • Bokaro – Produces Steel and steel structures and hence a mono-type complex

  • Integrated steel Plant

  • Iron ore fines and lumps, Limestone (BF and SMS grade), Dolomite lumps and chips, hard Coal and Manganese ore are handled here every year.

5 c. How do slums develop? Give concrete suggestions for their improvement.

  • Rapid migration to urban areas

  • Seasonal migration

  • Maximum economic activities in big cities

  • Suggestions – Water supply, sewage

  • Housing facilities

  • Waste collection method, foot path conditions

  • Social amenities – education and immunization

  • National Slum Development Program (NSDP), launched in 1996

  • Urban Low Cost Sanitation (LCS) – 1980

  • Urban Ashraya Housing Program: Government of Karnataka

  • Mythri Housing Scheme: Government of Kerala

5 d. Explain the role of India in the geo-politics of South Asia.

  • Dudley Stamp: Indian sub-continent: Separation from the rest of the Asian landmass by Himalayas

  • Distinct flora and fauna

  • India kept its democracy alive

  • Natural and economic resources

  • Cheap HEP

  • Major rivers – Indus, Ganga & Brahmaputra

5 e. Analyze the pattern of India’s trade with the S-E Asian countries.

  • Since 1950, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

  • Since 1995, World Trade Organisation (WTO)

  • Ex ante trade: Openness of an economy relates to the permissiveness of its policy positions on exports and imports.

  • Ex post trade: Openness of an economy refers to the actual outflow of exports and inflow of imports.

  • ASEAN accounts for 11% of India’s global exports & 9% of India’s global imports

  • Imports from ASEAN are primarily driven by electronics, electrical machinery, palm oil, mineral fuels, gems, and jewelry

6 a. Present a comparative analysis of geographical factors responsible for distribution of human settlements in Rajasthan desert and North-Eastern regions of India.

6 b. Explain with suitable examples the role of road transport in agricultural development in India.

  • Providing Infrastructure Improving (Physical) Accessibility Enhancing Mobility Improving Welfare

  • Extension of services

  • Maximize profits

  • Increase demand for goods

  • Stabilization of price

  • Increase mobility and connectivity

  • Door to door collection

  • Good facility for perishable commodities

6 c. Evaluate the impact of technology on resource utilization in India.

Clean Energy: Solar energy, biomass energy, wind energy, ocean energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, thermo-electric systems, nuclear energy and nanotechnology

7 a. Analyze the location, distributional pattern and problems of cotton textile industries in India.

  • Near raw material – Weber’s theory (raw material is bulky to transport)

  • Most advanced – Gujarat & Maharashtra

  • Easy RM, HEP in Western Ghats

  • Port facilities of Mumbai and Kandla

  • Humid climate required for spinning of the yarn

  • Large capital invested by Parsi and Bhatia businessmen

  • Locally available cheap and skilled labor from Konkan, Satara, Sholapur etc.

  • Good demand & well-knit transport

  • Problems – High production cost, competition, obsolete machinery & capital

7 b. Describe the major tribal regions of India and their problems.

  • Major population of tribes are found in Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh & NE - Seven Sister States

  • Small and uneconomical landholdings

  • Small fraction in secondary & tertiary activities

  • Low literacy

  • Mainly landless and shifting cultivation

  • Exploited by religious advent

7 c. Examine the cause of regional disparities in economic development in India.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Theories of Economic Development: Fundamentals of Geography Theories of Economic Development: Fundamentals of Geography
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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Economic Activities & Economic Development: Fundamentals of Geography Economic Activities & Economic Development: Fundamentals of Geography
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8 a. Describe the causes and effects of urbanization in India and explain its impact on rural landscape and urban ecology.

  • Causes – Industrialization, Employment, Modernization, Education

  • Effect – Overpopulation, Increase Crime, Impersonal relations, pollution, stress

8 b. “India has paid heavily for achievement of Green Revolution in the form of economic, social and ecological cost.” Discuss.

  • Unsustainable cropping

  • Unsustainable groundwater exploitation

  • Unplanned canal irrigation – Water Logging Issues

  • Excessive fertilizers and pesticides used

  • Increase in species resistant to pesticides and fungicides

8 c. Explain the origin, dimension and implications of Sino-Indian border dispute.

  • 1914 Shimla Agreement: British India and China delineated Mc Mohan line and Tibet

  • 1954: Panchsheel Agreement

  • 1959: Dalai Lama Asylum

  • 1962: Indo-China War - China occupied Aksai Chin & Arunachal Pradesh but withdrawn from Arunachal (called South Tibet by China)

  • Threats for India: China’s expense on defence, investment in PoK

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