IAS Mains Geography Optional Paper 1 Section A 2018 YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: IAS Mains Geography Optional 2018 Solutions IAS Mains Geography Optional 2018 Solutions
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Q.1 a) Landscape is a function of structure, process and stage. Critique this statement

  • Trio Theory

  • Davis – Cycle of landform development

  • Stage (time) is same.

  • ‘Complete cycle of river life’ in his essay on The Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania (1889)

  • ‘Geographical cycle’ (1899) and ‘slope evolution’

  • Low featureless peneplain formation

Watch video lecture on YouTube: 3 Geomorphic Models/Cycles of Slope Development - Davis, Penck and King 3 Geomorphic Models/Cycles of Slope Development - Davis, Penck and King
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Q.1 b) Explain the role of evaporation in hydrological cycle

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Hydrological Cycle or Water Cycle - In 9 Simple Stages Hydrological Cycle or Water Cycle - in 9 Simple Stages
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  • Must for cloud formation

  • Bergeon process

Refer -

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Precipitation - 4 Categories, Mechanism, Bergeon Process & Measurement Precipitation - 4 Categories, Mechanism, Bergeon Process & Measurement
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Q.1 c) Discuss the cause and consequences of sea level changes


  • Global warming

  • Greenhouse effect

  • Climate change

  • Melting of ice caps

  • Delay of winters

  • Consequences

  • Submergence of coastal areas

  • People forced to abandon homes

  • Disappearance of large lands

  • Heavy rains

  • Strong winds

  • Soil erosion

  • Impact on coastal farming – (Kerala case study - Kuttanad)

  • Q. 1 d) Distinguish between intrazonal and azonal soils. Describe in brief the characteristics of azonal soils.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Zonal Classification of Soil by USDA - 12 Soils Categorized Zonal Classification of Soil by USDA - 12 Soils Categorized
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  • Intrazonal – underdeveloped soil – hydromorphic, halomorphic and calcimorphic

  • Azonal – poorly developed soil (Lithosol, regosol and alluvial)

  • Fine grained weathered material constantly slides down

Q. 1 e) Explain the natural and anthropogenic causes and mitigation measures of frequent flooding in Mumbai.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Floods & Droughts in India - Causes, Impact & Control Measures Floods & Droughts in India - Causes, Impact & Control Measures
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– Floods and Droughts

Watch video lecture on YouTube: How to Write a Good Answer? Urban Flooding How to Write a Good Answer? Urban Flooding
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– Urban Flooding


  • Faulty zoning regulations

  • Outdated building regulations

  • Extensive reclamation

  • Rising sea level

  • Faltering drainage system (Mithi River)

  • Direct discharges of the untreated sewage, wastewater, trash from the unauthorized settlements and industrial effluents flow into the river’s course and choke it up

  • Reduction in catchment area

  • Bandra-Worli sea link constricted the mouth of Mithi River

  • Path of Mithi river is changed due to runway for CSIA (Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport)


  • Increase capacity of storm water drains

  • Clean Mithi River

  • Bore along with storm water drains

  • Plant and preserve mangroves

  • Percolation tanks – Water comes from Nashik (divert wwater by means of gravity)

Q. 2 a) Evaluate how far Kober’s geosynclinals theory explains mountain building process.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: 2 Major Theories in Mountain Building - Geosynclinal Orogen & Plate Tectonic Theory 2 Major Theories in Mountain Building - Geosynclinals Orogen & Plate Tectonic Theory
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  • Based on contraction of earth

  • Orogens – weak zones

  • Kratogens – old rigid stable landmass

  • Gave 8 morpho-tectonic units

  • Part between two randkettens (foreland) is median mass (this disappears in string compressive forces)

Q. 2 b) Critically examine the basis and climatic classification proposed by G.T. Trewatha.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: 3 Climatic Classification - Koppen, Trewartha, Thornthwaite 3 Climatic Classification - Koppen, Trewartha, Thornthwaite
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  • Temperature and precipitation

  • Empirical and applicable

  • A (tropical humid), C (subtropical), D (temperate), E (boreal) and F (polar) along with B (dry)

Q. 2 c) Discuss the objectives and principles of environmental education. Describe basic concerns of formal and non-formal environmental education in India.

Goals of environmental education are:

  • to foster clear awareness of, and concern about, economic, social, political, and ecological interdependence in urban and rural areas;

  • to provide every person with opportunities to acquire the knowledge, values, attitudes, commitment, and skills needed to protect and improve the environment;

  • to create new patterns of behavior of individuals, groups, and society as a whole towards the environment.

Environmental Education Objectives:

  • Awareness

  • Knowledge

  • Attitudes

  • Skills

  • Participation

Formal Environmental Education

  • Schools, colleges – awareness programs, curriculum (NCERT),

  • Human ecology, sociology, psychology, counseling, cost-benefit aspects, environmental ethics

  • CSIR, ICAR and ICMR – degree and diploma courses

Non-Formal Environmental Education

  • Learning by doing – (Sri Lanka – greening of learning – beautify school gardens; Community Led Environmental Action Network (CLEAN) in India based on the “four R” concept: refuse, reduce, recycle and reuse)

  • Innovative methods (Japan – Junior eco club; Centre for Environment Education (CEE) in India - exhibition package called ‘Act Now’)

  • Outdoor acts – NGOs (Singapore – adopt a beach program; China Association for Science and Technology)

Q. 3 a) Explain the process, origin and retreat of Indian Monsoon and its impact on Indian economy.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Indian Monsoon - Factors, Theories, Phenomena & Characteristics Indian Monsoon - Factors, Theories, Phenomena & Characteristics
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(Indian Monsoon)

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Tibetan Plateau - Role in Climatology & Latest Developments Tibetan Plateau - Role in Climatology & Latest Developments
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(Tibet Plateau)

Watch video lecture on YouTube: NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 4: Climate of India NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 4: Climate of India
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(NCERT Class 9 Chapter 4)

Q. 3 b) “Geomorphological changes are largely responsible for environmental changes in Himalayan region”. Comment with relevant examples.

  • Global warming is having a severe impact on the amount of snow and ice, which has serious implications for downstream water availability in both short and long term as up to 50% of the average annual flows in the rivers are contributed by snow and glacial melting. The warming in the greater Himalayas has been much greater than the global average: for example, 0.6 degrees Celsius per decade in Nepal, compared with a global average of 0.74 degrees Celsius over the last 100 years

  • Extreme weather events

  • High intense rainfalls leading to flash floods, landslides and debris flows

  • Establishing monitoring schemes for snow, ice, and water; downscaling climate models; applying hydrological models to predict water availability; and developing basin wide scenarios which also take water demand and socioeconomic development into account.

  • Rising temperature

  • Changing precipitation trends

  • Retreat of glaciers

  • Runoff over time and space

  • Water related hazards

  • Permafrost – sensitive to degradation with climate warming

  • Possibility of alterations in the overall albedo, water balance, and surface energy balance in high altitude grasslands and the increasing degradation and desertification of arid areas

Q. 3 c) “Controlling population growth is a sustainable solution to environmental problems.” Express your views with suitable examples.

  • Once more people meant more ingenuity, more talent and more innovation but now it just seems to mean less for each

  • Water scarcity

  • Land shortage

  • Less jobs

  • Less credit

  • Less food

  • Migration and sprawl

  • Higher pollution

  • Health and quality of life

  • Global warming (anthropogenic induced)- harsher droughts, fiercer storms and higher sea levels

Q. 4 a) Discuss the potential marine energy resources with reference to their benefits, harvestibility and environmental impacts.

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Marine Resources - In 3 Simple Categories Marine Resources - in 3 Simple Categories
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  • Refer World Energy Council Report 2016

  • Wave

  • Tidal

  • OTEC

  • Benefits – Renewable (reduce air and water pollution)

  • Vulnerability

  • Interaction of marine animals with the device

  • Noise disturbance from ocean energy devices

  • Potential effects that the installation of ocean energy devices could have on the movement of water by tides, waves, ocean currents and density in reaction to the removal of energy from the marine environment or disruptions to the natural flow of water

  • Tidal barrage technology - considered to have the greatest potential environmental impact. Tidal barrages can slow down the flow of water and in turn the amount of suspended sediment, resulting in loss of intertidal habitat.

  • Kempener & Neumann (2014b) studied tidal range installations, such as the Sihwa barrage in South Korea or potentially the Grevelingen Lake in the Netherlands, has improved environmental and ecological water quality. Ocean deices would provide artificial habitat for fishing grounds.

Q. 4 b) Explain ecosystem approach to environmental management and highlight its advantages and disadvantages.

  • Ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way.

  • Given under Convention of Biological Diversity

  • Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity resources

  • Includes biosphere reserves, protected areas, and single-species conservation programs

  • Principle 1: The objectives of management of land, water and living resources are a matter of societal choice.

  • Principle 2: Management should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level.

  • Principle 3: Ecosystem managers should consider the effects (actual or potential) of their activities on adjacent and other ecosystems.

  • Principle 4: Recognizing potential gains from management, there is usually a need to understand and manage the ecosystem in an economic context.

  • Principle 5: Conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning, in order to maintain ecosystem services, should be a priority target of the ecosystem approach.

  • Principle 6: Ecosystems must be managed within the limits of their functioning.

  • Principle 7: The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  • Principle 8: Recognizing the varying temporal scales and lag‐effects that characterize ecosystem processes, objectives for ecosystem management should be set for the long term.

  • Principle 9: Management must recognize that change is inevitable.

  • Principle 10: The ecosystem approach should seek the appropriate balance between, and integration of, conservation and use of biological diversity.

  • Principle 11: The ecosystem approach should consider all forms of relevant information, including scientific and indigenous and local knowledge, innovations and practices.

  • Principle 12: The ecosystem approach should involve all relevant sectors of society and scientific disciplines


  • Adaptive management strategy can be employed to deal with complex and dynamic nature of ecosystems and counteract lack of knowledge or comprehension of their functioning.

  • Natural resources and society as a whole are positioned in centre of the decision making process

  • One heath concept

  • Crop production intensification

  • Multi-sectoral organic agriculture program

  • Biodiversity

  • Genetic diversity

  • Sustainability


  • Local governance

  • Socio-economic factors

  • Politics

  • Lack of transparency

  • Lack of interaction between actors

Q. 4 c) Discuss the causes of degradation of tropical rainforests and suggest the remedial measures for their prevention, conservation and development.


  • Clearance for agriculture

  • Fuelwood

  • Mining

  • Industrial development

  • Large dams

  • Colonization

  • Tourism

  • Poverty

  • Over consumption

  • Logging

  • Cash cropping


  • Loss of biodiversity

  • Disruption of water cycle

  • Soil erosion

Remedial Measures

  • Teach others about the importance of the environment and how they can help save rainforests.

  • Restore damaged ecosystems by planting trees on land where forests have been cut down.

  • Encourage people to live in a way that doesn’t hurt the environment.

  • Establish parks to protect rainforests and wildlife.

  • Support companies that operate in ways that minimize damage to the environment.

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