IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 – Paper 1 Section B YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 Solutions: Paper 1 Section B IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 Solutions: Paper 1 Section B
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Model Answers & Test Series

5a. Explain the Concept of Time-Geography

  • Approach in social geography by Haggerstrand (research on human migration patterns)

  • Now applied to transportation, regional planning, geography, anthropology, time-use research, ecology, environmental science, and public health

  • Physical area around individual is reduced to 2-D plane, on which location and destination are zero-dimensional points

  • Path: sequence of activities for a specific path

  • Path Bundle: Individual path of people come together – Spread effect

  • Describes a path by physiological and physical necessities and imposed by private and common decisions

3 Constraints

  • Capability constraints: Limitations on the activity of individuals

  • Coupling constraints: Limitations that "define where, when, and for how long, the individual has to join other individuals, tools, and materials in order to produce, consume, and transact"

  • Authority constraints: Limitations on the domain

GeoTime (GIS software) - facilitate time-geographic visualization

5b. “Whittlesey’S Agricultural Regions Are Relevant Even Today,” Discuss

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Agricultural Regions and Systems: Fundamentals of Geography Agricultural Regions and Systems: Fundamentals of Geography
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5c. Write an Explanatory Note on Geographical System

System Analysis in Geography –

Watch video lecture on YouTube: 5 Relationships in System Analysis: Perspectives in Human Geography 5 Relationships in System Analysis: Perspectives in Human Geography
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5d. “the Traditional Cultural Identities Are at Loss with the Growth of Global Connectivity.” Explain

  • Loss of traditional art and craft, heritage, customs, languages, ethnic roots, religious beliefs etc. – these evolve over time but are replaced by global connectivity

  • Cultural homogenization

  • Impact of globalization on traditions

Diffusion -

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Culture, Types and Diffusion: Fundamentals of Geography Culture, Types and Diffusion: Fundamentals of Geography
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5e. Give an Account on Sustainable Development and Its Components

  • Brundtland Report “Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present (people) without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs”.

  • First coined in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on Human Environment at Stockholm

  • 1978 – Our Common Future

3 Aspects

  • Economic- to attain balanced growth

    • Creation for new markets & opportunities

    • Cost reduction through efficiency and improvements and reduced energy and raw material inputs

    • Creation of additional value

  • Ecological- to preserve the ecosystem

    • Reduce waste, effluent generation, emission into environment

    • Reduce impact on human health

    • Use of renewable raw material

    • Elimination of toxic substances

  • Social-guarantee equal access to resources to all human communities

    • Workers health and safety

    • Impact on local communities, quality of life

    • Benefits to disadvantaged groups

Idea of sustainable development in Earth summit –

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Earth Summit & Conventions: 3 Aspects - Climate Change, Biodiversity & Sustainable Development Earth Summit & Conventions: 3 Aspects - Climate Change, Biodiversity & Sustainable Development
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6a. Discuss the Contemporary Paradigms of Geography

Prevailing pattern of thought in a discipline or part of a discipline is known as paradigm

Set of concepts, categories, relationships and methods

Kuhn (1972) - evolution of a new paradigm or shared view is a process that changes with time.

  • Quantitative & Locational Analysis (GIS, RS)

  • Welfare Approach (Amratya Sen)

  • Radical Approach

6b. “the Intensity of Energy Crisis Varies Regionally,” Explain

  • Gap b/w supply & demand of various sources of energy

  • Cumulative energy

  • Hybrid cars/ electric cars

  • Renewable energy

  • Energy efficiency

  • Access to energy – remote/rural areas

  • Capture local sources and needs

Image of energy crisis

Image of Energy Crisis

Image of energy crisis

6c. Examine the Causes and Consequences of Forced Migration of Population in the Present Context

  • Forced Migration – sudden exogenous large number of arrival of migrants

  • Causes

  • War, trade, pilgrimages, drought and famine, development programs, land tenure system, and because of natural and manmade calamities, human trafficking, ethnic cleansing

  • Flow of forced migrants from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Eritrea, Somalia, Mali

Case study of Rohingya -

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Rohingya Crisis & State of Stateless People Rohingya Crisis & State of Stateless People
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Consequences

  • Radicalization

  • Political instability

  • Food crisis (immediate)

  • Spread of diseases

  • Unrest or terrorist attacks

  • Stress on public services and infrastructure in poor economies

  • Fiscal implications

7a. Discuss the Applicability of Christaller’S Central Place Theory

  • Gram Panchayats provide services to hamlets and smaller villages

  • Spacing b/w tehsils and city centers

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Christaller Central Place Theory: Fundamentals of Geography Christaller Central Place Theory: Fundamentals of Geography
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7b. “There Are Considerable Demographic Similarities between West European Nations and Japan.” Explain

Age-sex pyramid

Image of Japanese Population Pyramids

Image of Japanese Population Pyramids

Image of Japanese Population Pyramids

  • Ageing population

  • Longer life span and reduced birth rate – increasing aged within western societies

  • Post-war baby boom generation neared retirement and birth rates among their children declined

  • It led to historically low interest rates

  • Mitigate retiring population – later retirement age, career incentive, part-time work & immigration

7c. Define the Quality of Life and Explain Its Parameters with Adequate Explain

Quality of Life – General wellbeing of individual and societies & outlining positive and negative features of life

Represents difference, gap, between the hopes and expectations of a person and their present experience

  • Material living conditions (income, consumption and material conditions)

  • Productive or main activity

  • Health

  • Education

  • Leisure and social interactions

  • Economic and physical safety

  • Governance and basic rights

  • Natural and living environment

Overall experience of life

Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)

Measure developed by sociologist Morris David Morris in the 1970s

  • Basic literacy

  • IMR

  • Life expectancy

Image of Systems Model of Quality

Image of Systems Model of Quality

Image of Systems Model of Quality

8a. “the Heartland Theory is Gaining Importance Once Again.” Comment

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Political Geography Models: Fundamentals of Geography Political Geography Models: Fundamentals of Geography
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8b. Examine the Role of Small Towns in the Regional Development

  • Small towns are not bearers of innovation – have limited jobs and services

  • Are gems of cultural heritage (Taormina Declaration, 2009 in Europe)

  • Shift to counter-urbanization

  • Small towns create lowest level of centres within Friedman’s core – periphery model. They manifest the highest level of the countryside & lowest level of the urban system.

  • Aim at decentralization approach

  • Support walking, biking, and public transit help reduce air pollution

  • Protect open space, air and water quality

8c. Explain the Concept of Social Capital in Relation to India

Putnam - levels of trust, interest in public affairs and political participation are most important explanatory features of the differential institutional performance

  • One can measure the level of trust and cooperation, and compare these levels across regions or countries

  • One can assess empirically the influence of these measured variables on various micro and macro social phenomena

Explained relation b/w social capital & state performance

India ranks very low in "Prosperity Index", i.e. 101 among 142 countries, with its social capital rank being 138 in year 2012.

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