IAS Mains Geography Optional Paper 2 Section A 2018 YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: IAS Mains Geography Optional 2018 Solutions: Paper 2 Section A IAS Mains Geography Optional 2018 Solutions: Paper 2 Section A
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Q. 1 a) On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the location of all of the following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural, in not, more than 30 words for each entry:

  • Shyok River – In Ladakh, Pratham-Shyok bridge in Leh inaugurated

  • Mawlynnong – 90 km ffrom Shillong in Meghalaya – Asia’s cleanest village

  • Shravasti – district of UP, ancient city – life of Gautama Buddha

  • Kori Creek – tidal creek in Kutch, part of Indus river delta, disputed area between India and Pakistan

  • (v) Amarkantak – pilgrimage town in MP, meeting point of Vindhyas and Satpuras. Rivers that emerge are Narmada, Son and Johila

  • (vi) Ghatshila – Town in Purbi Singhbhum in Jharkhand, in news for Naxalites

  • (vii) Tawang – most cleanest district of NE India in 2018 Swachh Survekshan Gramin, known for monastery

  • (viii) Neyyar – Tiruvanthapuram in Kerala – wildlife sanctuary, dam (in news due to Kerala floods) and river

  • (ix) Dandeli - City in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India, in the Western Ghats region, wildlife sanctuary and limestone caves

  • (x) Mulshi Lake – as reservoir on Mulshi dam near Pune, tourist attraction

Q. 1 b) Explain the unusual intensity of dust storms and thunder storms across India in the pre-monsoon period of year 2018.

  • Down to Earth (Jan Edition)

  • Winters have become longer and more frigid in North America and Europe

  • Droughts have increased in several parts of Europe, Africa and Asia and precipitation has become extreme and increasingly uncertain

Convective storms have been seen

  • Squally weather over nine separate large-scale spells have been seen

  • Western Disturbances (WDs) - climatic flows that originate in the Mediterranean and make their way across west and central Asia before entering the Indian subcontinent via the Western Himalayan region

  • Low pressure over the Indo-Gangetic

  • Intense heating in west and northwest India

  • Weakening temperature gradient causes jet streams to meander rather than straighten

  • Low moisture content in the air – dust storms

  • Concoction – harmful

  • Delayed monsoon onset - reduces the strength of onrushing monsoonal winds which enter the subcontinent in the beginning of June.

  • Based on projections of humidity, heat and aerosol loading, occurrence of lightning is likely to increase in the future.

Q. 1 c) Why setting up of Water Management Boards is a controversial issue in India?

  • Kaveri water dispute

  • Conflict between the two states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The genesis of this conflict rests in two agreements in 1892 and 1924 between the Madras Presidency and Kingdom of Mysore. The 802 km Cauvery river has 44,000 km2 basin area in Tamil Nadu and 32,000 km2 basin area in Karnataka. The inflow from Karnataka is 425 TMCft whereas that from Tamil Nadu is 252 TMCft

  • Based on the inflow Karnataka is demanding its due share of water from the river. It states that the pre-independence agreements are invalid and are skewed heavily in the favor of the Madras Presidency

Q. 1 d) Keeping the recent developments in view, how can the energy crisis of India be circumvented by harnessing non-conventional energy resources?

Natural resources like wind, tides, solar, biomass, etc. generate energy which is known as “Non-conventional resources”. These are pollution free and hence we can use these to produce a clean form of energy without any wastage.

Refer -

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Renewable Energy in India Renewable Energy in India
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Q. 2 a) Distinguish the geographical aspects of North-Western lava plateau and Chotanagpur plateau of peninsular India.

  • Chotanagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh.

  • Pat region

  • Ranchi plateau

  • Hazaribagh plateau

  • Koderma plateau

  • Damodar trough

  • Palamu

  • Manbhum-Singhbhum

NW Lava Plateau

  • The northwestern part of Deccan plateau is made up of lava flows or igneous rocks known as the Deccan Traps.

  • Flood basalt

  • Beds of fossils that have been found between layers of lava

  • Sudden cooling due to sulfurous volcanic gases released by the formation of the traps and toxic gas emissions may have contributed significantly to the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction mass extinctions

Q. 2 b) Explain the contemporary agricultural scenario in the context of rapid urbanization in India.

  • The share of agriculture in GDP has registered a steady decline from 36.4 per cent in 1982-83 to 18.5 per cent in 2006-07.

  • Employs 52% workforce

  • The rural population constitutes about 80 per cent of the total population in 1971 and the population has been continuously falling marginally since then to 76.7, 74.3 and 72.2 per cent in 1981, 1991 and 2001, respectively

  • Agriculture accounts for about 14.7 per cent of the total export earnings and provides raw material to a large number of industries

  • Horticulture

  • Market gardening

  • Grains for ethanol and biofuels -

Watch video lecture on YouTube: National Policy on Biofuels 2018: Key Highlights National Policy on Biofuels 2018: Key Highlights
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Q. 2 c) Assess the suitability of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) for the sustainable economic development in India.

  • Develop export import

  • Bring foreign investment

  • Employment options

  • Better lifestyles

  • Develop industrial corridor

  • Transfer of technology

  • Development of deprived regions

  • From approval increased from 386 in 2006-07 to 588 in 2012-13

  • Export performance increased from Rs. 22840 crore in 2006-07 to more than Rs. 494077 crore in 2012-13

Q. 3 a) Examine the ongoing process of agriculture diversification and its implications for food security in India.

  • Doubling farmers income 2022

  • Diversification of agriculture in favour of non-cereals and high-value commodities such as fruits, vegetables, milk, meat, eggs, fish etc. are emerging as a promising source of income augmentation, employment generation, poverty alleviation and export promotion

  • KUSUM scheme

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Agriculture and Allied Sectors: Kurukshetra April 2018 Summary Agriculture and Allied Sectors: Kurukshetra April 2018 Summary
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(agriculture and allied sectors – Kurukshetra April 2018)

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Agriculture for Prosperity: Kurukshetra February 2018 Summary Agriculture for Prosperity: Kurukshetra February 2018 Summary
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(Agriculture for Prosperity – Yojana Feb 2018)

Q. 3 b) Account for the persisting negative trade balance of India.

  • Adverse impact on interest rate

  • Impact on economic growth and stability

  • Job loss

  • As exports fall, value of currency declines

  • As currency devalues, price of goods in that currency becomes more expensive

  • Banking and foreign exchange remittance procedures, lack of intellectual property standards and a lack of transparency

  • Deficit nations experience a greater degree of foreign direct investment and foreign ownership of government debt.

  • In a span of ten years, the growth in trade deficit between India and China has been 319.74%

  • Uncovered trade gap was USD 602 millions in 1998, it increased to USD 48 billion in 2015. Trade deficit with China narrowed only marginally to USD 51.08 billion in 2017 from USD 52.69 billion in 2016. (India’s export basket to China is dominated by commodities like cotton, copper, cement and mineral fuels; while China’s top exports to India include electrical items, organic chemicals, plastics and ships among others)

  • How to address – increase FDI, tariff and non-tariff barriers, check dumping

Q. 3 c) Critically assess the vanishing ethnic linguistic plurality of India.

  • Indian multilingualism cannot be understood under a single heading of Language Families. The real essence of Indian multilingualism can best be defined in terms of variations

  • Sanskrit can be written by Devanagri, Kannada, Telugu etc. This is an outcome of the pluralistic tradition of India. But this kind of trend can be a threat for many languages like Urdu and oral languages. Urdu and Hindi are considered same based on grammar but scripts are different as Hindi is written in Devanagri and Urdu is written in Perso-arabic. Mostly language cannot be segregated from its script.

  • Plurality is at language levels and also at cultural habits, rituals, caste, religions, i.e., in every sect of life.

Indian multilingualism

Indian Multilingualism

Indian multilingualism

  • Like bifurcation of Telangana from Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand from Bihar, while Vidarbha from eastern Maharashtra, and Gorkhaland and Bodoland from the North-east and separation of existing states into newer states on grounds of differing linguistic majority

  • India has 122 official, more than 780 unofficial languages and over 2000 dialects. If bifurcation goes on, it could led to death of plurality leading to the balkanization of India.

Q.4 a) Examine the driving forces of changing urban morphology of million-plus cities of India with suitable examples.

  • Population shifts take place only when certain development is realized

  • As per census of India 2001, around 285 million of the total population lived in more than five thousand urban centres reaching a 28% level of urbanization.

  • The total urban population increased tenfold between 1901 and 2001. Thus, there were 35 metropolitan and million plus cities which had large proportion of urban population

  • Traffic jams

  • Lack of infrastructure

  • Bureaucracy

  • The future projections are that by 2021 around 550 million people will be living in urban India

  • Urban population lives in slums, slum evictions and demolitions in the name of development

  • Lopsided urbanization induces growth of large cities

  • Non-industry based urbanization and weak economic base

  • Urbanization is mainly a product of demographic explosion and poverty induced rural-urban migration

  • Accelerated urbanization leads to haphazard growth of slums and cumulative poverty in the cities

  • Lacking minimum urban infrastructure and facilities in the cities

  • Poor quality of rural-urban migration leads to poor quality of urbanization

Q. 4 b) Discuss the emerging geo-political scenario of India Ocean realm.

  • The region contains 1/3 of the world’s population, 25% of its landmass, 40% of the world’s oil and gas reserves.

  • Indian Ocean also is home to the world’s two newest nuclear weapons states, India and Pakistan, as well as Iran, which most observers believe has a robust program to acquire nuclear weapons.

  • Strategic environment is volatile

  • Military power is looming

  • Protecting India’s EEZ of over 2.3 million square kilometers, securing India’s energy lifelines, promoting overseas markets and fulfilling international commitments

  • Look East Policy

  • Littoral states are acquiring a more pronounced maritime orientation and developing closer links with one another.

Q. 4 c) Give a critical account of region specific constraints of suitable tourism in India.

  • Seasonality of tourism – hilly areas (mountains)

  • Bad weather, heavy rainfall, landslides

  • Floods

  • Less frequent visitation of disabled tourists, economic recession, terrorism

  • Potential people with reduced mobility like those above 60 years work out to be 18.11% of India's population in 2001.

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