IAS Mains Philosophy Papers 1977

IAS Mains Philosophy 1977

  1. Examine the concept of secular value. Consider to what extent it is possible to promote secular values in a non-secular Society. OR Consider critically the view that the central concerns of the major Indian philosophical system are practical.


  1. Elucidate the concept of svadharma. Is it compatible with social mobility? Is social mobility itself desirable?

  2. Can there be rights without duties? How would you relate the two in the context of a modern democratic State?

  3. Would you distinguish between moral freedom and spiritual freedom? Answer with reference to both western and Indian treatment of the problem?

  4. Compare the utilitarian and sarvodaya conceptions of human welfare and indicate your preference.

  5. How would you distinguish between material progress and moral progress? Does moral progress necessarily involve putting a brake can material progress?

  6. Kant has been accused of being a formalist in ethics. Would you agree?


  1. What exactly is claimed when it is said that philosophy has to be scientific? Has philosophy no special feature no field or method of its own? What exactly is meant by speculative philosophy? OR To what extent to those who are against metaphysics in the twentieth century derive from Hume?

  2. Of God and pure spirit, which one is more important for Indian systems of philosophy? Answer with reference to both orthodox and heterodox systems.

  3. In what sense, if any, can man be said to be a part of nature and yet apart from it? Answer with reference to space, time and causation as necessary features of nature.

  4. Is there anything called matter apart from sensuous qualities, motion and space? Briefly discuss how the four can be related with one another.

  5. If appearances are necessarily relative to perceivers does it mean that they are therefore false?

Answer with reference to representative cases.

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