IAS Mains Sociology Paper 2012

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Section –A

Q.1 Write short notes on the following, keeping sociological perspective in view (Each short note in about 150 words):

  1. Interpretative Sociology

  2. Fact Value and Objectivity

  3. Universalism vs. Particularism

  4. Comparative Method

  5. Sacred and Profane.


  1. How did the French revolution and Industrial revolution play an important role in the emergence of Sociology ?

  1. Show how Durkheim through the study of totemism demonstrates the reality of religion.


  1. ‘Power and authority fo together.’ Examine. Explain the various types of authority also.

  1. Examine how Weber’s characterization of capitalism is different from those of Marx.


  1. Differentiate between the qualitative and quantitative methods in Research.

  1. Sometimes workers do not feel attachment for their work. Marx formed a theory for this situation, discuss that theory.

  1. ‘Social fact is to be treated as a thing.’ Discuss.

Section –B

Q.5 Write short notes on the following from a sociological perspective (Each short note in about 150 words ): -

  1. Stratification of Classes

  2. Industrial Democracy

  3. Citizenship and Civil Society

  4. Millenarian Movements

  5. Theory of cultural Lag – Ogburn and Nimkoff.


  1. In our society Hierarchical relations are influenced by social mobility. Explain how ?

  1. In Marxian classification of Society, feudal and slave societies mobility. Explain how ?

  1. Are Social movements always importance. How are they different from each other ?


  1. Discuss the factors leading to growing religious revivalism in the contemporary world.

  1. Describe the importance of lineage and descent in kinship and family.

  1. Show how family is distinct from household.


  1. How do formal and informal organization of work influence labour’s mobility ? Explain with examples.

  1. What do you understand by nation ? Is the nation same as the state ? Discuss.

  1. ‘Revolutionary change have some specific characteristics.’ Discuss with examples.


Section –A

Q.1 Write short notes with a sociological perspective on the following in not more than 150 words each:

  1. Limitations of the dialectical approach to the study of Indian society.

  2. Changing rural power structure.

  3. Challenges to institution of marriage.

  4. Westernization and institutional changes in India.

  5. Interaction of ‘little tradition’ and ‘great tradition’.


  1. Distinguish between the following :

(i) Tribe and Caste.

(ii) Affinal kin and consanguineous kin.

(iii) Marriage as sacrament and marriage as contract.

(iv) Positional change and structural change.

  1. ‘Indian society may be understood as a system of cognitive structures.’ How far do you agree with his statement ?

  1. Comment on the social and cultural determinants of sexual division of labour.



  1. Examine the impact of secularization on various religious communities in India.

  1. Has geographic and economic mobility impacted the cultural and social structure ? Give examples.


  1. Has nuclear family existed in traditional India ? Discuss with reference to the view of I.P.Desai.

  1. How have social reform movement in colonial India contributed to modernization of Indian society ?

  1. Discuss the factors which contributed to industrial modernization of Indian society ?

Section –B

Q.1 Write short notes with a sociological perspective on the following in note more than 150 words each :

  1. Demographic perspective of Indian youth.

  2. Regional political elites and the democratic process.

  3. Education and Dalit empowerment.

  4. Constitution as a living document of social change.

  5. Education and removal of inequality.


  1. Critically examine the concepts of nation and citizenship in the context of globalization.

  1. Discuss some social and cultural determinants of infant mortality rate. Give your suggestions to prevent infanticide.

  1. Bring out some positive and negative social consequences of green revolution. How has green revolution changed the rural social structure ?


  1. Describe those social changes which have contributed to increase of violence against women. What are the emerging form of violence against women ? Suggest suitable measures to contain this problem.

  1. What are the problem of ageing population ? Describe the declining traditional social support suitable measures to contain this problem.


  1. Have the new economic policy and economic reforms led to weakening of labour class movements ? Explain your views with examples.

  1. Do you think that some policies and laws relating to environment have retarded the development process ? Give examples. How can an ideal balance between environmental protection and development goals be brought about ?