IAS 2012 Prelims Solved Paper II Aptitude (Part 3 of 18)

Passage-3

Today's developing economies use much less energy per capita than developed countries such as the United States did at similar incomes, showing the potential for lower-carbon growth. Adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated into a climatesmart development strategy that increases resilience, reduces the threat of further global warming, and improves development outcomes. Adaptation and mitigation measures can advance development, and prosperity can raise incomes and foster better institutions. A healthier population living in better-built houses and with access to bank loans and social security is better equipped to deal with a changing climate and its consequences. Advancing robust, resilient development policies that promote adaptation is needed today because changes in the climate, already begun, will increase even in the short term. The spread of economic prosperity has always been intertwined with adaptation to changing ecological conditions. But as growth has altered the environment and as environmental change has adaptability demands greater capacity to understand our environment, generate new adaptive technologies and practices, and diffuse them widely.

As economic historians have explained, much of humankind's creative potential has been directed at adapting to the changing world. But adaptation cannot cope with all the impacts related to climate change, especially as large changes unfold in the long term. Countries cannot grow out of harm's way fast enough to match the changing climate. And some growth strategies, whether driven by the government or the market, can also add to vulnerability-particularly if they overexploit natural resources. Under the Soviet development plan, irrigated cotton cultivation expanded in water-stressed Central Asia and led to the near disappearance of the Aral Sea, threatening the livelihoods of fisherman, herders and farmers. And clearing mangroves-the natural coastal buffers against storm surges-to make way for intensive farming or housing development, increases the physical vulnerability of coastal settlements, whether in Guinea or in Louisiana.

  1. Which of the following conditions of growth can add to vulnerability?

    1. When the growth occurs due to excessive exploitation of mineral resources and forests.

    2. When the growth brings about a change in humankind's creative potential.

    3. When the growth is envisaged only for providing houses and social security to the people.

    4. When the growth occurs due to emphasis on farming only.

    Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

    1. 1 only

    2. 2, 3 and 4 only

    3. 1 and 4 only

    4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

    Answer: a

  2. What does low-carbon growth imply in the present context?

    1. More emphasis on the use of renewable sources of energy.

    2. Less emphasis on manufacturing sector and more emphasis on agriculture sector.

    3. Switching over from monoculture practices to mixed farming.

    4. Less demand for goods and services.

    Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

    1. 1 only

    2. 3 and 4 only

    3. 1 and 4 only

    4. None of the above implies low-carbon growth

    Answer: d

  3. Which of the following conditions is/are necessary for sustainable economic growth?

    1. Spreading of economic prosperity more.

    2. Popularising/spreading of adaptive technologies widely.

    3. Investing on research in adaptation and mitigation technologies.

    Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

    1. 1 only

    2. 2 and 3 only.

    3. 1 and 3 only

    4. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: b

  4. Which of the following inferences can be made from the passage?

    1. Rainfed crops should not be cultivated in irrigated areas.

    2. Farming under water-deficient areas should not be a part of development strategy.

    Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

    1. 1 only

    2. 2 only

    3. Both I and 2

    4. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: d

  5. Consider the following assumptions

    1. Sustainable economic growth demands the use of creative potential of man.

    2. Intensive agriculture can lead to ecological backlash.

    3. Spread of economic prosperity can adversely affect the ecology and environment.

    With reference to the passage, which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

    1. 1 only

    2. 2 and 3 only

    3. 1 and 3

    4. Only 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

  6. Which one of the following statements constitutes the central theme of this passage?

    1. Countries with greater economic prosperity are better equipped to deal with the consequences of climate change.

    2. Adaptation and mitigation should be integrated with development strategies, s

    3. Rapid economic growth should not be pursued by both developed and developing economies.

    4. Some countries resort to overexploitation of natural resources for the sake of rapid development.

    Answer: b