# IAS Mains-2020 Electrical Engineering Syllabus

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## Paper-I

Circuit Theory: Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: Nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits; Two-port networks.

Signals & Systems: Representation of continuous time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

E. M. Theory: Maxwell's equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line: Travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart.

Analog Electronics: Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits: Clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers: Single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: Criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Linear and switching power supplies.

Digital Electronics: Boolean algebra; minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: Arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: Latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

Energy Conversion: Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines: Characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors; Transformers: Principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: Characteristics and preformance analysis; speed control.

Power Electronics and Electric Drives: Semiconductor power devices: Diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFETstatic characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters: Fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DC-DC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable-speed drives.

Analog Communication: Random variables: Continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise: White noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system: Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.

## Paper-II

Control Systems: Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems: Time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bode-plots and polar plots, Nyquist's criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of control systems.

Microprocessors and Microcomputers: PC organisation; CPU, instruction set, register set, timing diagram, programming, interrupts, memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices.

Measurement and Instrumentation: Error analysis; measurement of current, voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurement. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic measuring instruments: Multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyzer, distortion-meter. Transducers: Thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-gauge, piezo-electric crystal.

Power Systems: Analysis and Control: Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability: Swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission.

Power System Protection: Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit breakers. Computer aided protection: Introduction; line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.

Digital Communication:

Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: Amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: Error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.