28 Million Obese by 2030 (Download PDF)

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World Obesity Federation, Around 28 million children in India will be obese by the year 2030. The country would rank second in the world in terms of the high number of obese people.

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  • Malnutrition

  • Includes Under nutrition (wasting, stunting and underweight).

  • Inadequate vitamins or minerals.

  • Overweight, obesity and resulting diet-related non-communicable diseases.

  • Obesity and Overweight

  • Results from an imbalance between energy consumed (too much) and energy expended (too little).

  • A person is too heavy for his or her height.

  • Health Impairment- Abnormal or excessive fat accumulation.

  • Body Mass Index (BMI) - An index of weight-for-height commonly used to classify overweight and obesity.

  • Body mass- a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of his/her height in meters (kg/m²).

  • Overweight (Adults) - is defined as a BMI of 25 or more, whereas obesity is a BMI of 30 or more.

  • People are consuming foods and drinks-More energy-dense (high in sugars and fats) and engaging in less physical activity.

A1 or A2 Milk

  • Conundrum

  • Choice between A1 and A2 milk.

  • Casein

  • Largest group of proteins in milk.

  • Making up about 80 % of total protein content.

  • Several types of casein in milk.

  • Beta-casein is the second most prevalent, exist in atleast 13 different forms.

  • A1 beta-casein and A2 beta-casein are the two most common forms.

  • All cows would produce only A2 protein.

  • Genetic mutation- many of them start producing both A1 and A2 proteins along with some producing A1 only.

  • Some studies- A1 beta-casein may be harmful and A2 beta-casein a safer choice.

  • A2 Milk Company markets A2 milk and doesn’t contain A1 beta-casein.

  • Tharparkar, Gir and Sahiwal- India’s desi cow have a genetic make-up that yields milk high in A2.

  • Indigenous breeds or Bos Indicus have a higher frequency of A2 protein.

Alzheimer’S Drug

  • Oligomannate

  • Uses extract from marine brown algae as raw material.

  • Received a conditional green light to treat mild-to-moderate level Alzheimer Disease.

Alzheimer Disease Preview

  • It is a progressive disorder.

  • It causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die.

  • Most common cause of dementia.

  • Dementia

  • A continuous decline in thinking.

  • Behavioral and social skills.

  • Disrupts a person’s ability to function independently.

  • Early signs of the disease may be forgetting recent events or conversations.

  • Will develop severe memory impairment, lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

  • Brown Algae

  • Class Phaeophyceae.

  • Class of about 1,500 species of algae in the division Chromophyta.

  • Common in cold waters along continental coasts.

  • Species colour varies from dark brown to olive green.

  • The proportion of brown pigment (fucoxanthin) to green pigment (chlorophyll).

  • Multiply by asexual and sexual reproduction.

  • Both the motile zoospores and gametes have two unequal flagella.

  • Some seaweed species have gas-filled bladders (pneumatocysts).

ARI-Highly Mortal

  • National Health Profile report

  • 69 % morbidity in 2018 due to lung infection.

  • Report was released by the Union Health Ministry.

  • Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) -69.47%

  • Highest in the communicable disease category leading to 27.21 % mortality.

  • States such as Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal reported a large number of patients and fatalities due to ARI.

  • Acute Respiratory Infections

  • Prevents normal breathing function.

  • Begins as a viral infection in the nose, trachea (windpipe) or lungs.

  • If not treated can spread to the entire respiratory system.

  • Respiratory illness- chronic bronchitis, emphysema, heart disease, asthma, wheezing, coughing and difficulty in breathing.

  • Prevents the body from getting oxygen resulting in death.

  • Needs medical assistance immediately.

  • Can spread from one person to another.

Avian Botulism

  • Killed 18,000 birds at Sambhar.

  • Produces the toxin when it starts reproducing.

  • Bacteria is commonly found in the soil, river and sea water.

  • Eight types- A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F and G

  • Botulinum toxin

  • Distinguishable on diagnosis

  • Toxins attack the neurons- leads to muscle paralysis.

  • Botulinum affects both human and animals.

  • Botulinum C in birds and A, B and E in humans.

Cellphone Causes Insomnia

  • Excessive use of mobile phone during bed time.

  • Affects the quality of sleep.

  • Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling or staying asleep.

  • Insomnia Symptoms

  • Difficulty falling asleep

  • Waking up often during the night

  • Trouble going back to sleep

  • Waking up too early in the morning

  • Feeling tired while walking

  • Types of Insomnia

  • Primary Insomnia

  • A person is having sleep problems.

  • Not directly associated with any other health condition or problem.

  • Secondary Insomnia

  • A person is having sleep problems.

  • Health condition (like asthma, depression, arthritis, cancer, or heartburn).

  • Pain, medication.

  • A substance they are using (like alcohol).

Classifications of Organism Based on Their Activity

  • Diurnal

  • Of or during the day.

  • Animals (diurnal) are active during the day.

  • Crepuscular

  • Means of Twilight.

  • Crepuscular animals (active during twilight).

  • Nocturnal

  • Done or active during the night.

  • Usually more vulnerable to predation.

  • Invisible (mice) during the night.

  • Matutinal

  • Occurring in the morning.

  • Organisms wake up before diurnal organisms.

  • Vespertine

  • Relating or occurring in the evening.

  • Similar to Nocturnal organisms.

Insect Pollination (Earliest Evidence)

  • First known instance of an insect.

  • Pollinating a flower (99 million years ago).

Types of Pollination

  • Autogamy (Self-pollination)

  • Pollen from the anthers of a flower is transferred to the stigma of the same flower.

  • Wheat, rice, pea etc are the examples.

  • Geitonogamy

  • Pollen grains from the anther of the flower are transferred to the stigma of another flower.

  • Borne on the same plant but at different branches.

  • Usually occurs in plants (monoecious condition, e. g. , Cucurbita).

  • Xeno-gamy (Cross-Pollination)

  • Transfer of pollen grains from the flower of one plant to the stigma of the flower of another plant.

  • Brings genetically different types of pollen grains to the stigma during pollination.

  • Papaya, maize etc are the examples.

Agents of Pollination

  • Two main categories.

  • Abiotic Agents-Wind Pollintaion, Water Pollination.

  • Biotic Agents-Animals-Mammals, Reptiles, Birds, Insects.

E-Cigarettes Ban

  • Health Ministry-Union government’s move to ban the sale of electronic cigarettes.

  • A pre-emptive strike before the new form of intoxication spreads.

  • Companies- looking at India as an attractive market.

E-Cigarettes

  • A battery-operated device.

  • Emits doses of vaporized nicotine or non-nicotine solutions.

  • Sensation to inhaling tobacco smoke without the smoke.

  • Also known as e-cigarettes, e-cigs, electronic nicotine delivery systems, vaporizer cigarettes and vape pens.

  • A way to stop or cut down on smoking.

  • Harmful effects

  • DNA damage

  • Carcinogenesis

  • Cellular

  • Molecular and Immunological Toxicity.

  • Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Neurological disorders.

  • Adverse impact- foetal development and pregnancy.

IndiGen Project

  • CSIR announcement.

  • A whole-genome sequence.

  • Programme called “IndiGen” involve other government departments.

  • To map a larger swathe of the population in the country.

  • Project proponents- widen public understanding in India about genomes, information that genes hide about one’s susceptibility to disease.

  • Whole genome sequencing

  • A genome- is the DNA, sequences of genes in a cell.

  • Chromosome-Most of the DNA is in the nucleus, intricately coiled into a structure.

  • Mitochondria-Cell’s powerhouse

  • Human Cell- Contains a pair of chromosomes has three billion base pairs or one of four molecules (Pair).

  • Genes- Order of base pairs and varying lengths of these sequences.

  • Responsible for making amino acids, proteins.

  • Proteins donot function as intended causing disease.

  • Genome Sequencing- deciphering the exact order of base pairs in an individual.

Kerala-Tackling TB

  • On track to achieve TB elimination by 2025.

  • Lauded by World Health Organization.

  • Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP).

TB-Tuberculosis

  • Caused by bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  • Often affects lungs.

  • Curable and preventable.

  • Person to person-through the air.

  • Breathe in TB bacteria.

  • Released by someone in air- Through cough or sneeze.

National Strategic Plan (NSP) 2017 - 2025

  • Plan produced by the government of India (GoI).

  • Sets out the government to eliminate TB in India.

  • Describes the activities and interventions that the GoI will bring about.

  • Significant change in the incidence.

  • Prevalence and mortality from TB.

RNTCP (Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme)

  • Started in 1962.

  • Aim to detect cases earliest.

  • Providing suitable treatment.

  • District Implementation- District Tuberculosis Centre (DTC), the Primary Health Institutions.

  • DTP (District Tuberculosis Programme) is supported by the state level organization.

  • Coordination and supervision of the programme.

  • Based on the Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) strategy.

  • As a pilot project in 1993.

  • A national programme in 1997.

  • Rapid RNTCP expansion began in late 1998.

  • 2006- Nation-wide coverage achievement.

  • Initiated early and firm steps to its declared objective of Universal access.

  • Early quality diagnosis.

  • Quality TB care for all TB patients.

Measles

  • A viral disease.

  • Spreads rapidly.

  • Also known as rubeola or morbilli.

  • An endemic disease.

  • Continually present in a community.

  • Many people develop resistance.

  • An unpleasant condition.

  • Normally passes without treatment within 7 to 10 days.

  • A person gains immunity for the rest of their life (after about of measles).

  • Unlikely to contract measles a second time (after about of measles).

  • Symptoms

  • Fever followed by atleast one (Cough, coryza, or runny nose, conjunctivitis).

  • watery eyes

  • runny nose

  • sneezing

  • a reddish-brown rash

  • Koplik’s spots (very small grayish-white spots with bluish-white centers in the mouth, insides of cheeks and throat).

  • Generalized body aches.

Pesticides Affecting DNA

  • Tea estate workers

  • Pesticide exposure could affect DNA.

Types of Pesticides

  • Algaecides

  • Used for killing algae.

  • Slowing the growth of algae.

  • Antimicrobials

  • Control germs and microbes (bacteria and viruses).

  • Biopesticides

  • Made of living things.

  • Found in nature.

  • Desiccants

  • To dry up living plant tissues.

  • Disinfectants

  • Control germs and microbes (bacteria and viruses).

  • Defoliants

  • Cause plants to drop their leaves.

  • Foggers (total release foggers)

  • Used to kill insects.

  • Insects in the open and touch the pesticides.

  • Fungicides

  • Control fungal problems like molds, mildew and rust.

  • Herbicides

  • Kill or inhibit the growth of unwanted plants, aka weeds.

  • Illegal and Counterfeit Pesticides

  • Imported or sold illegally.

  • Insecticides

  • Control insects.

  • Insect Growth Regulators

  • Disrupt the growth and reproduction of insects.

  • Minimum Risk Pesticides

  • Exempted from EPA registration.

  • Many states require them to be registered.

  • Miticides

  • Control mites (feeding on plants and animals).

  • Mites-not insects exactly.

  • Molluscicides

  • Designed to control slugs, snails and other molluscs.

  • Ovicides

  • To control eggs of insects and mites.

  • Pheromones

  • Biologically active chemicals.

  • Attract insects.

  • Disrupt their mating behavior.

  • Ratio of chemicals in the mixture- Often species specific.

  • Plant Growth Regulators

  • Used to alter the growth of plants.

  • Example- they may induce or delay flowering.

  • Mothballs

  • Insecticides used to kill fabric pests.

  • By fumigation in sealed containers.

  • Repellents

  • Designed to repel unwanted pests.

  • By taste or smell.

  • Rodenticides

  • To kills rodents like mice, rats, and gophers.

  • Synergists

  • Make certain pesticides more effective.

  • Not effective when used alone.

  • Wood Preservatives

  • To make wood resistant to insects, fungus and other pests.

Plague

  • A serious and potentially fatal bacterial infection.

  • Caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis.

  • Can contract the disease from the bite of an infected flea.

  • Plague and Fleas both are being carried out by the Rodents including rats.

  • Bubonic plague (most common type of plague).

  • Bubonic plague-An infection of the lymph nodes.

  • Pneumonic plague- an infection of the lungs and septicemic (affects the blood).

  • Time between infection and the first appearance of symptoms- 2 to 8 days.

Promising Immunotherapy

  • Cancer

  • Each of the cells of the body has a tightly regulated system.

  • The cells control their growth, maturity, reproduction and eventual death.

  • Begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control.

  • Many kinds of cancer- all start because of out-of-control growth of abnormal cells.

  • Carcinogens

  • Any substance or radiation that promotes cancer formation or carcinogenesis.

  • Chemical carcinogens- natural or synthetic, toxic or non-toxic.

  • Organic in nature (benzo [a] pyrene and viruses).

  • Carcinogenic radiation example- ultraviolet light.

  • Types of Cancer Treatment

  • Surgery

  • To remove the cancer as much of the cancer as possible.

  • Chemotherapy

  • Uses drugs to kill cancer cells.

  • Radiation therapy

  • Uses high-powered energy beams.

  • X-rays or protons to kill cancer cells.

  • Bone marrow transplant

  • Material inside your bones.

  • Makes blood cells from blood stem cells.

  • Also known as a stem cell transplant.

  • Can use your own bone marrow stem cells or those from a donor.

  • Immunotherapy

  • Also known as biological therapy.

  • Uses your body’s immune system to fight cancer.

  • Hormone therapy

  • Fueled by our body’s hormones.

  • Examples- breast cancer and prostate cancer.

  • Removing such hormones from the body or blocking their effects may cause the cancer cells to stop growing.

  • Targeted Drug Therapy

  • Focuses on specific abnormalities within cancer cells.

  • Allow them to survive.

  • Cryoablation

  • Kills cancer cells with cold.

  • A thin, wandlike needle (cryoprobe) is inserted through your skin and directly into the cancerous tumor.

  • A gas is pumped into the cryoprobe- To freeze the tissue.

  • The freezing and thawing process is repeated several times.

  • During the same treatment session in order to kill the cancer cells.

  • Radiofrequency ablation

  • Uses electrical energy to heat cancer cells.

  • Cause them to die.

  • Clinical trials

  • To investigate new ways of treating cancer.

  • Thousands of cancer clinical trials-Underway.

Managing Diabetes Using Protein

  • A protein that helps manage insulin levels.

  • By showing the potential to tackle diabetes and neuro-degenerative disorders like dementia and Alzheimers.

  • Diabetes

  • Blood glucose called blood sugar is too high.

  • Blood glucose- Main source of energy, Comes from the food we eat.

  • Insulin- A hormone made by the pancreas helps glucose from food get into our cells to be used for energy.

  • Our body sometimes doesn’t make enough or any insulin or doesn’t use insulin well.

  • Glucose-stays in our blood and doesn’t reach your cells.

  • Excess glucose can cause health problems.

  • Diabetes has no cure.

  • Types

  • Type 1 diabetes

  • Our body doesn’t make insulin.

  • Our immune system attacks and destroys the cells in our pancreas responsible for making insulin.

  • Usually diagnosed in children and young adults.

  • Need to take insulin every day to stay alive.

    • Type 2 diabetes

    • Most common type of diabetes.

  • Body does not make or use insulin well.

  • Can develop type 2 diabetes at any age (even during childhood).

  • Most often occur in middle-aged and older people.

  • Gestational diabetes

  • Develops in some women when they are pregnant.

  • Goes away after the baby is born.

  • A greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

  • Other types of diabetes

  • Monogenic diabetes-Inherited form of diabetes.

  • Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

White Blood Cells (Stimulation)

  • White Blood Cells

  • Account for only about 1 % of our blood.

  • Impact is big.

  • Also called leukocytes.

  • Protect us against illness and disease.

  • Made in the bone marrow.

  • Stored in your blood and lymph tissues.

  • Some white blood cells- a short life of 1 to 3 days.

  • Types of WBC

  • Monocytes

  • A longer lifespan than many white blood cells.

  • Help to break down bacteria.

  • Lymphocytes

  • Create antibodies to fight against bacteria.

  • Viruses.

  • Other potentially harmful invaders.

  • Neutrophils

  • Kill and digest bacteria and fungi.

  • Most numerous type of white blood cell.

  • First line of defense when infection strikes.

  • Basophils

  • Small cells

  • To sound an alarm when infectious agents invade your blood.

  • Secrete chemicals such as histamine, a marker of allergic disease.

  • Helps help control the body’s immune response.

  • Eosinophils

  • Attack and kill parasites and cancer cells.

  • Help with allergic responses.

World’S First Typhoid Vaccine

  • Pakistan- first country in the world to introduce a new typhoid vaccine.

  • To combat a drug-resistant strain of the potentially fatal disease in the Sindh province.

Typhoid

  • An infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhi).

  • Bacterium lives in the intestines and bloodstream of humans.

  • Spreads between individuals- direct contact with the feces of an infected person.

  • Transmission-Always human to human.

  • Animals do not carry this disease.

  • With treatment- fewer than 4 in 100 cases are fatal.

  • Without treatment- around 1 in 5 cases of typhoid can be fatal.

  • S. typhi-Enters through mouth, spends 1 to 3 weeks in the intestine. It makes its way through the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream.

  • Spreads into other tissues and organs from the bloodstream.

  • S. typhi can live within the host’s cells, safe from the immune system.

  • Diagnosed by detecting the presence of S. typhi via blood, stool, urine or bone marrow sample.

- Published/Last Modified on: February 10, 2020

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