Air Pollution-Increasing Glaucoma (Download PDF)

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Higher amounts of fine particulate matter. At least 6 % more chances of having glaucoma. Glaucoma, A group of eye conditions. Damages the optic nerve. Caused by an abnormally high pressure in ones eye. Above age 60-Major cause of blindness.

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  • Occurs at any age.

  • More common in older adults.

  • Many forms-no warning signs.

  • Vision loss cannot be recovered.

  • Essential to have regular eye exams.

  • Early recognition-Prevention and slow down of vision loss.

  • Particulate Matter

  • Particle Pollution or PM.

  • A complex mixture- extremely small particles and liquid droplets.

  • Made up of a number of components.

  • Includes acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles.

  • Size of the particles = potential for causing health problems.

Climate Emergency

  • UN Annual Assessment-Calls for 7.6 % cut each year.

  • UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)

  • Global emissions need to fall by 7.6 % each year until 2030.

  • To limit global temperature rises to 1.5°C.

  • On an average emissions have risen 1.55 annually over the last decade.

  • 2018 - 55.3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide or equivalent greenhouse gases.

  • WMO (World Meteorological Organization) - atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations hit an all-time record in 2018.

  • Paris Deal- To limit temperature rises above pre-industrial levels to well below 2°C and to a safer 1.5°C if possible.

  • 1.5°C goal is still attainable.

  • Requirement of an unprecedented, coordinated upheaval of a global economy.


  • Fear about the state of the environment.

  • Overwhelmed by the challenges of climate change.

  • Medicos- Feel powerless against a supposedly impending doom causing anxiety and stress.

Ice-Free Arctic

  • Arctic Ocean Ice-free-2044.

  • Arctic-located at the northernmost part of our planet.

  • Scientists-Area above the ‘Arctic Circle’.

  • Arctic Circle is an imaginary line that circles around the top of the globe.

  • It consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, the USA, Greenland, Norway, Finland, Sweden and Iceland.

  • An entire day of darkness.

  • A full day of sunshine.

  • Northern Greenland-Temperatures as low as –70°C.

  • Inuits- Indigenous people of the Arctic.

  • Enormous ice sheets-rests on water and not land.

  • Wildlife- polar bears, Arctic foxes, walruses, seals and whales.

  • Narwhal-Found in the Arctic and is often referred to as the ‘unicorn of the sea’.

  • Arctic Ice-10 % of the world’s fresh water.

Paris Pact

  • Paris pact is unfair to the US-President of the United States.

  • US Slams India and China.

  • Paris Climate Agreement

  • Paris climate accord

  • Paris climate deal

  • Paris agreement

  • Sponsored by the United Nations

  • To bring the countries of the world together in the fight against climate change.

  • Overall Mission

  • Countries to limit the century’s global average temperature increase to no more than 2 degrees Celsius.

  • Above the levels from the years 1850 - 1900 (the pre-industrial era).

  • A more rigid goal of limiting temperature.

  • Increased to only 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial era levels.

  • Responsibility and Legal binding

  • Historic Pact-Dec 12,2015 in Paris, France.

  • To adopt green energy sources.

  • To cut down on greenhouse gas emissions.

  • To limit the rise of global temperatures.

  • To tackle greenhouse gas emissions-Every country has an individual plan or Nationally Determined Contributions.

  • Obama administration- US vowed to cut its emissions by 26 to 28 % below 2005 levels by the year 2025.

  • Overall agreement- Developed countries should provide $100 billion to the fund.

  • Hybrid of legally binding and non-binding provisions.

  • No penalty for countries that falls short of their pledged goals.

  • Withdrawal from the agreement

  • Govt. can request a formal withdrawal.

  • Withdrawal takes four years.

  • Withdrawal from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change altogether.

  • Withdrawal from the underlying convention- A signal of country’s departure from any United Nations-sponsored climate discussions.

Snow Leopard

  • Conservationist- protection of snow leopards involves various stakeholders.

  • Snow Leopards in India

  • Dachigam National Park

  • Great Himalayan National Park

  • Pin Valley National Park

  • Hemis National Park

  • Gangotri National Park

  • Govind Pashu Vihar National Park

  • Khangchendzonga National Park

  • Namdapha National Park

  • Valley of Flower National Park

  • Nanda Devi National Park

Wasteland Conversion

  • Environmentalists-wasteland conversion threatens livelihoods, ecological balance.

  • Wastelands include degraded forests, overgrazed pastures, drought-struck pastures, eroded valleys, hilly slopes, waterlogged marshy lands, barren land etc.

  • Types

Culturable Wastelands

  • Not being utilised to their full potential.

  • Mismanaged due to various reasons such as State or private occupation.

  • Being declared as a notified forest area.

Unculturable Wastelands

  • Wastelands not available for cultivation.

  • Includes barren rocky lands, steep sloping areas and areas covered by snow or glaciers.

Ecological Imbalance

  • More than 14,000 square km of ‘wasteland’ converted.

  • Mostly dense scrub, glacial areas, sands or marshland.

  • Productive use between 2008 - 09 and 2015 - 16.

  • Govt. ‘s target to restore 26 million hectares of wasteland and degraded land by 2030.

  • Risks affecting the livelihoods of pastoralists, fishermen and nomadic farmers.

  • The livelihood are often dependent on the traditional commons- lands, caution environmental policy researchers and social activists.

  • Buffer against floods, droughts and pollution for a wider population.

- Published/Last Modified on: February 12, 2020

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