IAs Mains Geography Optional 2017 – Paper 1 Section B (Part -1 ) (Download PDF)

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Geography optional paper was very predictable based on the recent happenings around the globe -indeed many concepts were similar to those asked in our past test series. In the 2018 Geography optional Test Series, we have reserved 2 mock test for the month of March to cover the contemporary happenings. As expected, climate and environment was indeed the major focus areas for 2017 paper.

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IAs Mains Geography Optional 2017 Solutions: Paper 1 Section B (in English)

5A. Explain the Concept of Time-Geography

  • Approach in social geography by Haggerstrand (research on human migration patterns)
  • Path: sequence of activities for a specific path
  • Path Bundle: Individual path of people come together - Spread effect
  • Describes a path by physiological and physical necessities and imposed by private and common decisions
  • 3 Constraints
  1. Capability constraints: Limitations on the activity of individuals
  2. Coupling constraints: Limitations that “define where, when, and for how long, the individual has to join other individuals, tools, and materials in order to produce, consume, and transact”
  3. Authority constraints: Limitations on the domain
  • GeoTime (GIS software) - facilitate time-geographic visualization

5B. “Whittlesey՚s Agricultural Regions Are Relevant Even Today,” Discuss

Agricultural Regions and Systems: Fundamentals of Geography

5C. Write an Explanatory Note on Geographical System

  • System Analysis in Geography -
5 Relationships in System Analysis: Perspectives in Human Geography

5D. “the Traditional Cultural Identities Are at Loss with the Growth of Global Connectivity.” Explain

  • Loss of traditional art and craft, heritage, customs, languages, ethnic roots, religious beliefs etc. - these evolve over time but are replaced by global connectivity
  • Cultural homogenization
  • Impact of globalization on traditions
Culture, Types and Diffusion: Fundamentals of Geography

5E. Give an Account on Sustainable Development and Its Components

  • Brundtland Report “Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present (people) without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs” .
  • First coined in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on Human Environment at Stockholm
  • 1978 - Our Common Future
  • 3 Aspects
  • Economic- to attain balanced growth
  1. Creation for new markets & opportunities
  2. Cost reduction through efficiency and improvements and reduced energy and raw material inputs
  3. Creation of additional value
  • Ecological- to preserve the ecosystem
  1. Reduce waste, effluent generation, emission into environment
  2. Reduce impact on human health
  3. Use of renewable raw material
  4. Elimination of toxic substances
  • Social-guarantee equal access to resources to all human communities
  1. Workers health and safety
  2. Impact on local communities, quality of life
  3. Benefits to disadvantaged groups
  • Idea of sustainable development in Earth summit -
Earth Summit & Conventions: 3 Aspects - Climate Change, Biodiversity & Sustainable Development

6A. Discuss the Contemporary Paradigms of Geography

  • Prevailing pattern of thought in a discipline or part of a discipline is known as paradigm
  • Set of concepts, categories, relationships and methods
  • Kuhn (1972) - evolution of a new paradigm or shared view is a process that changes with time.
  • Macoloo (2014) stages
  • Pre-paradigm period
  • Professionalization
  • Crisis phase
  • Revolutionary phase
  1. Quantitative & Locational Analysis (GIS, ₹)
  2. Welfare Approach (Amratya Sen)
  3. Radical Approach
IAs Mains Geography Optional 2017 Solutions: Paper 1 Section B (in Hindi)

- Published/Last Modified on: December 7, 2017

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