IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 – Paper 1 Section B (Part -1 ) (Download PDF)

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Geography optional paper was very predictable based on the recent happenings around the globe –indeed many concepts were similar to those asked in our past test series. In the 2018 Geography optional Test Series, we have reserved 2 mock test for the month of March to cover the contemporary happenings. As expected, climate and environment was indeed the major focus areas for 2017 paper.

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IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 Solutions: Paper 1 Section B (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains how to write answers and what examiners expect in UPSC Mains Geography Optional. The solutions explained are for 2017 Paper 1 section B.

5a. Explain the Concept of Time-Geography.

  • Approach in social geography by Haggerstrand (research on human migration patterns)
  • Path: sequence of activities for a specific path
  • Path Bundle: Individual path of people come together – Spread effect
  • Describes a path by physiological and physical necessities and imposed by private and common decisions
  • 3 Constraints
  1. Capability constraints: Limitations on the activity of individuals
  2. Coupling constraints: Limitations that “define where, when, and for how long, the individual has to join other individuals, tools, and materials in order to produce, consume, and transact”
  3. Authority constraints: Limitations on the domain
  • GeoTime (GIS software) - facilitate time-geographic visualization

5b. “Whittlesey’s Agricultural Regions Are Relevant Even Today, ” Discuss.

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Agricultural Regions and Systems: Fundamentals of Geography

In this session on agricultural geography, various schemes of agricultural classification, typology of agriculture, Whittlesey Classification, agricultural inputs and productivity are explained by Dr. Manishika.

5c. Write an Explanatory Note on Geographical System.

  • System Analysis in Geography –
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5 Relationships in System Analysis: Perspectives in Human Geography

Dr. Manishika Jain in this lecture explains the system analysis in human geography focusing on the work

5d. “The Traditional Cultural Identities Are at Loss with the Growth of Global Connectivity. ” Explain.

  • Loss of traditional art and craft, heritage, customs, languages, ethnic roots, religious beliefs etc. – these evolve over time but are replaced by global connectivity
  • Cultural homogenization
  • Impact of globalization on traditions
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Culture, Types and Diffusion: Fundamentals of Geography

In this class Dr. Manishika explains the meaning of culture, types of culture, material, non-material culture, diffusion and types of relocation and expansion diffusion in culture.

5e. Give an Account on Sustainable Development and Its Components.

  • Brundtland Report “Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present (people) without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs”.
  • First coined in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on Human Environment at Stockholm
  • 1978 – Our Common Future
  • 3 Aspects
  • Economic- to attain balanced growth
  1. Creation for new markets & opportunities
  2. Cost reduction through efficiency and improvements and reduced energy and raw material inputs
  3. Creation of additional value
  • Ecological- to preserve the ecosystem
  1. Reduce waste, effluent generation, emission into environment
  2. Reduce impact on human health
  3. Use of renewable raw material
  4. Elimination of toxic substances
  • Social-guarantee equal access to resources to all human communities
  1. Workers health and safety
  2. Impact on local communities, quality of life
  3. Benefits to disadvantaged groups
  • Idea of sustainable development in Earth summit -
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Earth Summit & Conventions: 3 Aspects - Climate Change, Biodiversity & Sustainable Development

Dr. Manishika Jain explains the Earth Summit Key Aspects.

6a. Discuss the Contemporary Paradigms of Geography.

  • Prevailing pattern of thought in a discipline or part of a discipline is known as paradigm
  • Set of concepts, categories, relationships and methods
  • Kuhn (1972) - evolution of a new paradigm or shared view is a process that changes with time.
  • Macoloo (2014) stages
  • Pre-paradigm period
  • Professionalization
  • Crisis phase
  • Revolutionary phase
  1. Quantitative & Locational Analysis (GIS, RS)
  2. Welfare Approach (Amratya Sen)
  3. Radical Approach
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IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 Solutions: Paper 1 Section B (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains how to write answers and what examiners expect in UPSC Mains Geography Optional. The solutions explained are for 2017 Paper 1 section B.

- Published/Last Modified on: December 7, 2017

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