IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 – Paper 1 Section B (Part - 2)


Geography optional paper was very predictable based on the recent happenings around the globe –indeed many concepts were similar to those asked in our past test series. In the 2018 Geography optional Test Series, we have reserved 2 mock test for the month of March to cover the contemporary happenings. As expected, climate and environment was indeed the major focus areas for 2017 paper.

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IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 Solutions: Paper 1 Section B (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains how to write answers and what examiners expect in UPSC Mains Geography Optional. The solutions explained are for 2017 Paper 1 section B.

6b. “The intensity of energy crisis varies regionally, ” Explain.

  • Gap b/w supply & demand of various sources of energy
  • Cumulative energy
  • Hybrid cars/electric cars
  • Renewable energy
  • Energy efficiency
  • Access to energy – remote/rural areas
  • Capture local sources and needs
Image of Losing Steam

6c. Examine the causes and consequences of forced migration of population in the present context.

  • Forced Migration – sudden exogenous large number of arrival of migrants
  • Causes
  • War, trade, pilgrimages, drought and famine, development programs, land tenure system, and because of natural and manmade calamities, human trafficking, ethnic cleansing
  • Flow of forced migrants from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Eritrea, Somalia, Mali
  • Case study of Rohingya -
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Rohingya Crisis & State of Stateless People (Current Affairs/GS 2017 - 18)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Rohingya Crisis & State of Stateless People


  • Radicalization
  • Political instability
  • Food crisis (immediate)
  • Spread of diseases
  • Unrest or terrorist attacks
  • Stress on public services and infrastructure in poor economies
  • Fiscal implications

7a. Discuss the applicability of Christaller’s Central place Theory.

  • Gram Panchayats provide services to hamlets and smaller villages
  • Spacing b/w tehsils and city centers
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Christaller Central Place Theory: Fundamentals of Geography

In this lecture on urban geography, Dr. Manishika Jain clarifies the concepts of Christaller Theory - Principles of centralization, threshold and range, introduction to K value, assumptions and criticisms of the theory.

7b. “There are considerable demographic similarities between West European nations and Japan. ” Explain.

Age-sex pyramid

Image of Age-sex pyramid
  • Ageing population
  • Longer life span and reduced birth rate – increasing aged within western societies
  • Post-war baby boom generation neared retirement and birth rates among their children declined
  • It led to historically low interest rates
  • Mitigate retiring population – later retirement age, career incentive, part-time work & immigration

7c. Define the quality of life and explain its parameters with adequate explain.

  • Quality of Life – General wellbeing of individual and societies & outlining positive and negative features of life
  • Represents difference, gap, between the hopes and expectations of a person and their present experience
  1. Material living conditions (income, consumption and material conditions)
  2. Productive or main activity
  3. Health
  4. Education
  5. Leisure and social interactions
  6. Economic and physical safety
  7. Governance and basic rights
  8. Natural and living environment

Overall experience of life

Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)

Measure developed by sociologist Morris David Morris in the 1970s

  • Basic literacy
  • IMR
  • Life expectancy
Image of Life expectancy

8a. “The Heartland theory is gaining importance once again. ” Comment.

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Political Geography Models: Fundamentals of Geography

In this lecture on political geography, Dr. Manishika explains various models including Heartland-Rimland Theory, Shatterbelt Theory, Air power supremacy, Functional approach, German geopolitik, Unified field theory and Containment Theory.

8b. Examine the role of small towns in the regional development.

  • Small towns are not bearers of innovation – have limited jobs and services
  • Are gems of cultural heritage (Taormina Declaration, 2009 in Europe)
  • Shift to counter-urbanization
  • Small towns create lowest level of centres within Friedman’s core – periphery model. They manifest the highest level of the countryside & lowest level of the urban system.
  • Aim at decentralization approach

8c. Explain the concept of social capital in relation to India.

  • Putnam - levels of trust, interest in public affairs and political participation are most important explanatory features of the differential institutional performance
  1. One can measure the level of trust and cooperation, and compare these levels across regions or countries
  2. One can assess empirically the influence of these measured variables on various micro and macro social phenomena
  • Explained relation b/w social capital & state performance
  • India ranks very low in “Prosperity Index”, i. e. 101 among 142 countries, with its social capital rank being 138 in year 2012.
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IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 Solutions: Paper 1 Section B (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains how to write answers and what examiners expect in UPSC Mains Geography Optional. The solutions explained are for 2017 Paper 1 section B.

- Published/Last Modified on: December 7, 2017

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