IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 – Paper 1 Section a (Part - 1)

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Geography optional paper was very predictable based on the recent happenings around the globe -indeed many concepts were similar to those asked in our past test series. In the 2018 Geography optional Test Series, we have reserved 2 mock test for the month of March to cover the contemporary happenings. As expected, climate and environment was indeed the major focus areas for 2017 paper.

IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 Solutions: Paper 1 Section a (in English)

1A. Write a Note on Pseudo Volcanic Features

  • Pseudovolcanic Features - These are non-volcanic and resemble volcanic features
  • Meteorite Craters - Lonar Lake, Maharashtra
  • Salt Plugs - high pressure salt acts as intrusion & forms plug domes
  • Mud Volcano - hydrocarbons from the petroleum-bearing beds beneath cause mud-eruptions

1B. Distinguish between Low Energy Coasts and Coral Coasts

  • Low Energy Coast
  • Coasts sheltered from storms and swells by adjacent topographical features (barrier island, reef, embayment, shoal, headland) , by their position with respect to prevailing wind direction, by their position in a climatic belt, by gentle offshore topography, or by a combination of these factors.
  • Landforms include spits and beaches
  • Coral Coast - Upper limit of coral reef growth along the coast is limited by the level of low tide and tidal conditions influence the height of coral reefs. Includes reefs and calcareous deposits along the shore

1C. Discuss the Impacts of Ocean Currents on Air Mass Behaviour

  • Oceans - cover 71 % area, absorb twice the radiation
  • Have immense heat capacity
  • Warming temperatures transported by ocean currents can promote atmospheric instability & potential for precipitation and storms - case for air masses over western boundary currents of the North Pacific (Kuroshio Current) and North Atlantic gyres (Gulf Stream) .

1D. Describe the Characteristics of Biological Deserts

  • Biological desert - is area without life
  • Very deep ocean waters
  • 30 Oct Report - Many seamounts in Pacific Ocean are Biological Deserts

1E. Explain the Concept of Micro Carbon Sink and Its Relevance

  • Small natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
  • Carbon sequestration - process by which carbon sinks remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere
  • Gained momentum after Kyoto Protocol, which promotes their use as a form of carbon offset
  • Removes CO2 from atmosphere
  • Regenerate agriculture
  • Ocean is largest sink of CO2 but acidification taking place - alternatives

2A. Discuss the Forces Which Govern the Air Movement on the Earth՚s Surface

  • Explain Pressure Gradient Force (HP to LP)
  • Coriolis force
  • Friction
  • Gravitation
  • Heat (Convectional)
Air Movement on the Earth՚s Surface

2B. “the Knowledge of Slope Analysis Has Limited Field Application in the Slope Management.” Explain

  • Slope analysis - Davis, Penck, King (talked about origin and development) - mainly natural causes
  • Management focuses on anthropogenic causes & the present state - not related to evolution process
  • Using terraces, benches, reduce slope angles, drainage, cover cropping
  • Slope erodes due to surface runoff, wind & detachment of top soil

2C. Describe the Configuration of the Pacific Ocean Floor

  • Largest - 35 % of ocean area
  • Numerous islands - including coral islands
Largest - 35 % of Ocean Area
Trenches and Plateaus
  • Trenches and plateaus
  • Mariana, Mindando & Philippine trench
  • South- Pacific Antarctic Submarine Ridge
IAS Mains Geography Optional 2017 Solutions: Paper 1 Section a (in Hindi)

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