IAS Mains Geography Optional Paper 1 Section B 2018 (Part -2)

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Q. 7 a) “Famine is a social phenomena rooted in institutional and political economic arrangements, which determine access to food by different classes and strata.” Comment. - Food Security, Nutrition and Famine:

IAS Mains Geography Optional 2018 Solutions: Paper 1 Section B

Food Security, Nutrition and Famine:

Food Security, Nutrition and Famine

Difference between famine and drought

Shortage of water versus shortage of food and nutritional security

  • Hoarding of food
  • Economic conflicts
  • Political unrest
  • Movement of food due to natural hazards
  • Reduced purchasing power
  • Lack of aid
  • Reduced workforce

Irish Potato famine - potato disease

Russian famine - agricultural production during WW-I

China Famine due to Great Leap Forward movement

Ethiopia famine due to poor governance

Dutch winter famine of 1944 caused severe shortage of food

Q. 7 b) Provide a brief outline of ideas related to “sense of place” as propounded by Yi-Fu Tuan and Relph in the humanistic geography that emerged in the 1970՚s.

Humanistic Approach: 4 Key Elements

Humanistic - Buttimer, Relph and Tuan

Phenomenology - Relph and Tuan

There is no objective world independent of man՚s existence

All knowledge comes from experience

Topophilia - emotional connections to place

Nature of knowledge

Role of territory

Influence of religion


  • To know world is to know oneself
  • Geography is mirror of man


Places and placelessness

Q. 7 c) Elaborate upon the influence of Marxist philosophy on geographical research, outlining key themes addressed by Marxist geographers since the 1970՚s.

  • Marxist Geography
  • Reproduction of social formations
  • Against capitalism
  • Spatial organization of socio-environmental relations
  • Superstructure - understand economic processes by theory of religion

Q. 8 a) “Welfare geography emphasizes spatial inequality and territorial justice.” Comment with reference to the main ideas and scope of the subfield

Welfare Approach: Achieving Pareto Optimality
  • Came with rise in radical geography
  • Welfare approach emerged as the response to quantitative revolution, spatial science, positivism, and model-building
  • Identify and explain the existence of crime, hunger, poverty, environmental degradation, malnutrition, deprivation, and other forms of discrimination and disadvantage
  • Understanding how the whole social, economic and political system functions, and teasing out universal tendencies
  • Details of particular social, economic and political systems; for example, how housing policy under capitalism advantages some people in some places and disadvantages other people in other places

Q. 8 b) Discuss critically the manner in which quantitative revolution provided the methodological foundation for models and modelling in geography

Quantitative Revolution & Locational Analysis: Need for Numbers
  • Ackerman
  • Weaver
  • Christaller
  • Harvey
  • Ullman - urban structure

Allowed projections

Identify trends

Come up with estimate of error

Formulate structured ideas

Reduced observations to factors

Q. 8 c) Discuss in brief the main thesis in “Limits to growth” (1972) and also provided a critique of the same.

Models of Economic Geography

Relation between earth and human systems

Written by Meadows

Commissioned by Club of Rome

  • World population
  • Industrialization
  • Pollution
  • Food production
  • Resource depletion

Predictions were weak

Failed to recognize to flexibility and adoptability

Assumed that new source would not be found (incorrect)

Insufficient evidence of variables

Developed by: