IAS Mains Geography Optional Paper 1 Section a 2018 - (Part 2)

⪻ On New Articles ⪼

Q. 3 a) Explain the process, origin and retreat of Indian Monsoon and its impact on Indian economy. - (Indian Monsoon) , (Tibet Plateau) , (NCERT Class 9 Chapter 4) Climate of India.

IAS Mains Geography Optional 2018 Solutions: Paper 1 Section a

(Indian Monsoon) :

Indian Monsoon - Factors, Theories, Phenomena & Characteristics

(Tibet Plateau) :

Tibetan Plateau - Role in Climatology & Latest Developments

(NCERT Class 9 Chapter 4) - Climate of India

NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 4: Climate of India

Q. 3 b) “Geomorphological changes are largely responsible for environmental changes in Himalayan region” . Comment with relevant examples.

Global warming is having a severe impact on the amount of snow and ice, which has serious implications for downstream water availability in both short and long term as up to 50 % of the average annual flows in the rivers are contributed by snow and glacial melting. The warming in the greater Himalayas has been much greater than the global average: for example, 0.6 degrees Celsius per decade in Nepal, compared with a global average of 0.74 degrees Celsius over the last 100 years

Extreme weather events

High intense rainfalls leading to flash floods, landslides and debris flows

Establishing monitoring schemes for snow, ice, and water; downscaling climate models; applying hydrological models to predict water availability; and developing basin wide scenarios which also take water demand and socioeconomic development into account.

  • Rising temperature
  • Changing precipitation trends
  • Retreat of glaciers
  • Runoff over time and space
  • Water related hazards
  • Permafrost - sensitive to degradation with climate warming

Possibility of alterations in the overall albedo, water balance, and surface energy balance in high altitude grasslands and the increasing degradation and desertification of arid areas

Q. 3 c) “Controlling population growth is a sustainable solution to environmental problems.” Express your views with suitable examples.

Once more people meant more ingenuity, more talent and more innovation but now it just seems to mean less for each

Water scarcity

Land shortage

Less jobs

Less credit

Less food

Migration and sprawl

Higher pollution

Health and quality of life

Global warming (anthropogenic induced) - harsher droughts, fiercer storms and higher sea levels

Q. 4 a) Discuss the potential marine energy resources with reference to their benefits, harvestibility and environmental impacts.

Marine Resources - In 3 Simple Categories

Refer World Energy Council Report 2016




Benefits - Renewable (reduce air and water pollution)


  • Interaction of marine animals with the device
  • Noise disturbance from ocean energy devices
  • Potential effects that the installation of ocean energy devices could have on the movement of water by tides, waves, ocean currents and density in reaction to the removal of energy from the marine environment or disruptions to the natural flow of water
  • Tidal barrage technology - considered to have the greatest potential environmental impact. Tidal barrages can slow down the flow of water and in turn the amount of suspended sediment, resulting in loss of intertidal habitat.

Kempener & Neumann (2014b) studied tidal range installations, such as the Sihwa barrage in South Korea or potentially the Grevelingen Lake in the Netherlands, has improved environmental and ecological water quality. Ocean deices would provide artificial habitat for fishing grounds.

Q. 4 b) Explain ecosystem approach to environmental management and highlight its advantages and disadvantages.

Ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way.

Given under Convention of Biological Diversity

Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity resources

Includes biosphere reserves, protected areas, and single-species conservation programs

Principle 1: The objectives of management of land, water and living resources are a matter of societal choice.

Principle 2: Management should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level.

Principle 3: Ecosystem managers should consider the effects (actual or potential) of their activities on adjacent and other ecosystems.

Principle 4: Recognizing potential gains from management, there is usually a need to understand and manage the ecosystem in an economic context.

Principle 5: Conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning, in order to maintain ecosystem services, should be a priority target of the ecosystem approach.

Principle 6: Ecosystems must be managed within the limits of their functioning.

Principle 7: The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

Principle 8: Recognizing the varying temporal scales and lag-effects that characterize ecosystem processes, objectives for ecosystem management should be set for the long term.

Principle 9: Management must recognize that change is inevitable.

Principle 10: The ecosystem approach should seek the appropriate balance between, and integration of, conservation and use of biological diversity.

Principle 11: The ecosystem approach should consider all forms of relevant information, including scientific and indigenous and local knowledge, innovations and practices.

Principle 12: The ecosystem approach should involve all relevant sectors of society and scientific disciplines


  • Adaptive management strategy can be employed to deal with complex and dynamic nature of ecosystems and counteract lack of knowledge or comprehension of their functioning.
  • Natural resources and society as a whole are positioned in centre of the decision making process
  • One heath concept
  • Crop production intensification
  • Multi-sectoral organic agriculture program
  • Biodiversity
  • Genetic diversity
  • Sustainability


  • Local governance
  • Socio-economic factors
  • Politics
  • Lack of transparency
  • Lack of interaction between actors

Q. 4 c) Discuss the causes of degradation of tropical rainforests and suggest the remedial measures for their prevention, conservation and development.


  • Clearance for agriculture
  • Fuelwood
  • Mining
  • Industrial development
  • Large dams
  • Colonization
  • Tourism
  • Poverty
  • Over consumption
  • Logging
  • Cash cropping


  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Disruption of water cycle
  • Soil erosion

Remedial Measures

  • Teach others about the importance of the environment and how they can help save rainforests.
  • Restore damaged ecosystems by planting trees on land where forests have been cut down.
  • Encourage people to live in a way that doesn՚t hurt the environment.
  • Establish parks to protect rainforests and wildlife.
  • Support companies that operate in ways that minimize damage to the environment.

Developed by: