IAS Mains Geography Optional Paper 2 Section a 2018 (Part - 2) (Download PDF)


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Q. 3 a) Examine the ongoing process of agriculture diversification and its implications for food security in India. : Doubling farmers income 2022. Diversification of agriculture in favour of non-cereals and high-value commodities such as fruits, vegetables, milk, meat, eggs, fish etc. are emerging as a promising source of income augmentation, employment generation, poverty alleviation and export promotion.

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IAS Mains Geography Optional 2018 Solutions: Paper 2 Section A

Dr. Manishika Jain explains how to write answers and what examiners expect in UPSC Mains Geography Optional.

  • KUSUM scheme

(agriculture and allied sectors – Kurukshetra April 2018):

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Agriculture and Allied Sectors: Kurukshetra April 2018 Summary

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra April 2018: Agriculture and Allied Sectors

(Agriculture for Prosperity – Yojana Feb 2018):

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Agriculture for Prosperity: Kurukshetra February 2018 Summary

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra February 2018: Agriculture for Prosperity

Q. 3 b) Account for the persisting negative trade balance of India.

  • Adverse impact on interest rate
  • Impact on economic growth and stability
  • Job loss
  • As exports fall, value of currency declines
  • As currency devalues, price of goods in that currency becomes more expensive
  • Banking and foreign exchange remittance procedures, lack of intellectual property standards and a lack of transparency
  • Deficit nations experience a greater degree of foreign direct investment and foreign ownership of government debt.
  • In a span of ten years, the growth in trade deficit between India and China has been 319.74%
  • Uncovered trade gap was USD 602 millions in 1998, it increased to USD 48 billion in 2015. Trade deficit with China narrowed only marginally to USD 51.08 billion in 2017 from USD 52.69 billion in 2016. (India’s export basket to China is dominated by commodities like cotton, copper, cement and mineral fuels; while China’s top exports to India include electrical items, organic chemicals, plastics and ships among others)
  • How to address – increase FDI, tariff and non-tariff barriers, check dumping

Q. 3 c) Critically assess the vanishing ethnic linguistic plurality of India.

  • Indian multilingualism cannot be understood under a single heading of Language Families. The real essence of Indian multilingualism can best be defined in terms of variations
  • Sanskrit can be written by Devanagri, Kannada, Telugu etc. This is an outcome of the pluralistic tradition of India. But this kind of trend can be a threat for many languages like Urdu and oral languages. Urdu and Hindi are considered same based on grammar but scripts are different as Hindi is written in Devanagri and Urdu is written in Perso-arabic. Mostly language cannot be segregated from its script.
  • Plurality is at language levels and also at cultural habits, rituals, caste, religions, i. e. , in every sect of life.
Image of Plurality is at lang. levels & also cultural habits

Image of Plurality is at Lang. Levels & Also Cultural Habits

Image of Plurality is at lang. levels & also cultural habits

  • Like bifurcation of Telangana from Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand from Bihar, while Vidarbha from eastern Maharashtra, and Gorkhaland and Bodoland from the North-east and separation of existing states into newer states on grounds of differing linguistic majority
  • India has 122 official, more than 780 unofficial languages and over 2000 dialects. If bifurcation goes on, it could led to death of plurality leading to the balkanization of India.

Q. 4 a) Examine the driving forces of changing urban morphology of million-plus cities of India with suitable examples.

  • Population shifts take place only when certain development is realized
  • As per census of India 2001, around 285 million of the total population lived in more than five thousand urban centres reaching a 28 % level of urbanization.
  • The total urban population increased tenfold between 1901 and 2001. Thus, there were 35 metropolitan and million plus cities which had large proportion of urban population
  • Traffic jams
  • Lack of infrastructure
  • Bureaucracy
  • The future projections are that by 2021 around 550 million people will be living in urban India
  • Urban population lives in slums, slum evictions and demolitions in the name of development
  • Lopsided urbanization induces growth of large cities
  • Non-industry based urbanization and weak economic base
  • Urbanization is mainly a product of demographic explosion and poverty induced rural-urban migration
  • Accelerated urbanization leads to haphazard growth of slums and cumulative poverty in the cities
  • Lacking minimum urban infrastructure and facilities in the cities
  • Poor quality of rural-urban migration leads to poor quality of urbanization

Q. 4 b) Discuss the emerging geo-political scenario of India Ocean realm.

  • The region contains 1/3 of the world’s population, 25 % of its landmass, 40 % of the world’s oil and gas reserves.
  • Indian Ocean also is home to the world’s two newest nuclear weapons states, India and Pakistan, as well as Iran, which most observers believe has a robust program to acquire nuclear weapons.
  • Strategic environment is volatile
  • Military power is looming
  • Protecting India’s EEZ of over 2.3 million square kilometers, securing India’s energy lifelines, promoting overseas markets and fulfilling international commitments
  • Look East Policy
  • Littoral states are acquiring a more pronounced maritime orientation and developing closer links with one another.

Q. 4 c) Give a critical account of region specific constraints of suitable tourism in India.

  • Seasonality of tourism – hilly areas (mountains)
  • Bad weather, heavy rainfall, landslides
  • Floods
  • Less frequent visitation of disabled tourists, economic recession, terrorism
  • Potential people with reduced mobility like those above 60 years works out to be 18.11 % of India’s population in 2001.

- Published/Last Modified on: October 24, 2018

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