IAs Mains Optional Geography Paper 2019 Paper 1 – Section B with Solutions (Download PDF)

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Section- B Answer the following in about 150 words each: 10 × 5 = 50

5. a. A language originates at a particular place and diffuses to other locations through the migration of its speakers. Examine this statement in the context of language hot spots and endangered language hot spots.

  • Endangered languages are often clustered in small geographic areas. These areas are Language Hotspots, places with: High genetic diversity - Most accounts of language diversity only look at the raw number of languages in an area.
  • High genetic diversity - Most accounts of language diversity only look at the raw number of languages in an area. Our calculation of genetic diversity also considers how many genetic units are represented. A genetic unit is a grouping like the Romance languages

5. b. Define stunting and wasting. Why are these more prevalent among children in developing countries?

  • Hunger Index
  • World Hunger Index
  • Stunting, or low height for age, is caused by long-term insufficient nutrient intake and frequent infections. Stunting generally occurs before age two, and effects are largely irreversible.
  • Wasting, or low weight for height, is a strong predictor of mortality among children under five. It is usually the result of acute significant food shortage and/or disease.
  • In children the three most commonly used anthropometric indices to assess their growth status are weight-for-height, height-for-age and weight-for-age.

5. c. Explain the relationship between net reproductive rate (NRR) and true replacement level of population.

  • Terminologies in Population Geography
  • Net Reproductive Rate: Average number of daughters that would be born to a woman if she passed through her life-time from birth to the end of her reproductive years conforming to the age-specific fertility and mortality rates of a given year
  • NRR is always lower than GRR, because it takes into account the fact that some women will die before entering and completing their child-bearing years Š Correspondingly NRR will be less than half the magnitude of the TFR
  • Replacement Level Fertility is said to have been reached when NRR = 1.0 - Surviving women in the hypothetical cohort have exactly enough daughters (on average) to replace themselves in the population

5. d. What are natural regions? How are they different from planning regions?

  • Regional Geography

5. e. Discuss the genetic classification of boundaries suggested by Hartshorne. ?

1. Antecedent

~A political boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in a place while people moved into occupy the surroundings.

~Example: Between Malaysia and Indonesia at Borneo Island՚s sparsely inhabited rainforest.

2. Subsequent

~a political boundary that developed contemporaneously with the evolution of the major elements of cultural landscape.

~Example: Vietnam and China border. It has been continually adjusted and modified for centuries.

3. Superimposed

~A political boundary placed by powerful outsiders on a developed human landscape.

~Example: The Island of New Guinea was divided by colonial powers.

4. Relict

~A political boundary that has ceased to function but the imprint of which can still be detected on the cultural landscape.

~Example: North and South Vietnam՚s border has had relict status since 1976.

6. a. HDI has brought about a paradigm shift in the way people think about the development process. Critically examine the inherent limitation of HDI. 20

  • Knowledge: First an educational component made up of two statistics - mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling
  • Long and healthy life: Second a life expectancy component is calculated using a minimum value for life expectancy of 25 years and maximum value of 85 years
  • A decent standard of living: The final element is gross national income (GNI) per capita adjusted to purchasing power parity standard (PPP)
  • The UNDP classifies each country into one of three development groups:
  • Low human development for HDI scores between 0.0 and 0.5,
  • Medium human development for HDI scores between 0.5 and 0.8
  • High human development for HDI scores between 0.8 and 1.0.
  • Limitations of the Human Development Index
  • The HDI notably fails to take account of qualitative factors, such as cultural identity and political freedoms (human security, gender opportunities and human rights for example)
  • Many argue that the HDI should become more human-centred and expanded to include more dimensions, ranging from gender equity to environmental biodiversity
  • The GNP per capita figure - and consequently the HDI figure - takes no account of income distribution. If income is unevenly distributed, then GNP per capita will be an inaccurate measure of the monetary well-being of the people. Inequitable development is not human development
  • There are likely to be significant variations in human development outcomes within as well as between countries.
  • PPP values change very quickly and are likely to be inaccurate or misleading
  • The 2010 edition of the Human Development Report marked the launch of a new Inequality-adjusted HDI and also a Gender Inequality Index and a Multidimensional Poverty Index

6. b. “A large scale global shift in manufacturing is the outcome of deindustrization in the developed world matched by industrialization in the developing world.” Analyze this statement. 15

  • During the past 25 years, employment in manufacturing as a share of total employment has fallen dramatically in the world՚s most advanced economies, a phenomenon widely referred to as “deindustrialization.” The trend, particularly evident in the United States and Europe, is also apparent in Japan and has been observed most recently in the Four Tiger economies of East Asia (Hong Kong, China, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan Province of China) .
  • Some suggest that deindustrialization is a result of the globalization of markets and has been fostered by the rapid growth of North-South trade (trade between the advanced economies and the developing world) . These critics argue that the fast growth of labor-intensive manufacturing industries in the developing world is displacing the jobs of workers in the advanced economies.
  • Deindustrialization is not a negative phenomenon, but a natural consequence of further growth in advanced economies.
  • The main reason for deindustrialization is the faster growth of productivity in manufacturing than in services.
  • North-South trade has played very little role in deindustrialization.
  • Trade among industrial countries (rather than between industrial countries and the developing world) accounts for some of the differences in employment structure between different advanced economies.
  • Future growth within the developed world is likely to depend increasingly on productivity growth in services.
  • The nature of the service sector is less suited to centralized wage bargaining.

6. c. What do you mean by climate migrants? Suggest appropriate policies and programmes for their resettlement. 15

Climate Refugees: Environmental Migration - Immediate Attention (Important for UPsC)
  • Reasons? ? more than 85 million people could leave home by 2050 in sub-Saharan Africa, 40 million in South Asia, and 17 million in Latin America Resilience in agriculture Make cities less vulnerable Rehabilitation efforts in terms of natural disasters Climate Change Displacement Coordination Facility to relocate migrants and rehabilitate them in safer region Independent treaty framework addressing the challenges of climate change-induced migration comprehensively

7. a. What changes in the current planning, management and governance of human settlements are needed to face the changing environment including climate change and disaster vulnerabilities in cities? 20

Climate Change and Cities - Report by Urban Climate Change Research Network

Down to Earth (DTE) 1 - 15 July 2019|Heat Waves - Urban Heat Island Effect, GHG|UPsC Prelims 2020
  • DTE June 2019
  • In September 2015, the United Nations endorsed the new Sustainable Development Goal 11, which is to “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.”
  • Pathway 1: Actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions while increasing resilience are a win-win
  • Pathway 2: Disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation are the cornerstones of resilient cities
  • Pathway 3: Risk assessments and climate action plans co-generated with the full range of stakeholders and scientists are most effective
  • Pathway 4: Needs of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable citizens should be addressed in climate change planning and action
  • Pathway 5: Advancing city creditworthiness, developing robust city institutions, and participating in city networks enable climate action
  • The warming climate combined with the urban heat island effect will exacerbate air pollution in cities

7. b. Globalization can often subsume folk culture. What are its positive and negative effects? 15

  • Need for Values
  • Threats and Lack of Values
  • Comparing Globalization Abroad and at Home
  • Time and Space Compression
  • Traveling
  • Impetus for Traveling: Experience and Adventure
  • Culture Shock
  • Language Shock
  • Displacement

7. c. “Growth is not uniform in different places.” Critically examine this statement in the context of the growth pole theory. 15

Perroux Growth Pole Theory: Fundamentals of Geography
  • Perroux model

8. a. Distinguish between; Isodapanes; and ‘isotims’ . Critically examine the least cost theory of industrial location given by Alfred Weber. 20

Weber’s Industrial Location Theory & Smith’s Concept: Fundamentals of Geography
  • Weber՚s Model
  • The isodapane is found by adding all of the isotims at a location.
  • Isodapane: line of equal total transport cost from a location
  • Isotim: line of equal transport cost from a location

8. b. Assess the challenges for countries with the largest Shares of Populations. 15

  • The report titled ‘The power of 1.8 billion’ , said 28 per cent of India՚s population is 10 to 24 year-olds, adding that the youth population is growing fastest in the poorest nations. Global number of youths is highest ever. As the world is home to 1.8 billion young people between the ages of 10 and 24 year, 9 in 10 of the world՚s young population live in less developed countries China, India and South Korea were the countries of origin for the most foreign university students, while the United States was the destination for the largest number, followed by the United Kingdom and Australia.

8. c. Examine the relevance of the ‘Rimland theory’ in the contemporary world. 15

Political Geography Models: Fundamentals of Geography
  • As per Spykman, landlocked states usually faced security challenges from their immediate neighbours. Island states normally faced potential pressure from other naval powers, but if they are offshore island states (Great Britain and Japan) they could also face security challenges from nearby coastal powers.
  • Spykman held that rimland was the key to world power; not Mackinder՚s Heartland, since seapower and airpower through their domination of littoral՚s coast would be able to contain and dominate heartland. The two geopolitical theories remain at the core of continental versus maritime approach in the security calculus of rimland states with continental orientation, which include China and India.
  • Control of the margin sea will not only act as a protective buffer against any belligerent seapower, but also allow China to project its seapower further in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean region.

IAS Mains Geography Optional 2019 Solutions: Paper 1 Section B

- Published/Last Modified on: December 31, 2019

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