IAs Mains Optional Geography Paper 2019 Paper 2 – Section a (Download PDF)

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Section- A

Answer the following in about 150 words each: 10 × 5 = 50

1. a. On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the location of all of the following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of these locations, weather physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 30 words for each entry: 2 × 10 = 20

i. Lothal

ii. River Beas

iii. Chikhaldara

iv. Narora

v. Lengpui

vi. Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary

vii. Thenmala

viii. Anamudi

ix. Barren Island

x. Durgaduani creek

1. b. Explain the major causes of ground water depletion in India. 10

  • Subsidies on electricity and high MSP for water intensive crops is also leading reasons for depletion. Water contamination as in the case of pollution by landfills, septic tanks, leaky underground gas tanks, and from overuse of fertilizers and pesticides lead to damage and depletion of groundwater resources.
  • 1. Groundwater depletion most commonly occurs because of the frequent pumping of water from the ground.
  • 2. We continuously pump groundwater from aquifers and it does not have enough time to replenish itself.
  • 3. Agricultural needs require a large amount of groundwater.
  • 4. Groundwater depletion can also occur naturally.

1. c. Why is the Indian Monsoon erratic in nature? Explain 10

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  • Less rainfall in shorter bursts risks damaging agriculture and causing flooding in India
  • They discovered that while the average total rainfall during the monsoon season had declined, the variability of rainfall during the peak monsoon months had increased.
  • The monsoon typically starts in southern India in June and moves across the subcontinent. By mid-July, it is established over the entire subcontinent.
  • The next step in research was to find a cause for the observed changes, whether manmade climate change, atmospheric pollution, natural variability, or a combination of these.

1. d. Explain the significance of dry farming in drought prone of India. 10

  • Based on the amount of rainfall received, dryland agriculture can be grouped into three categories:
  • Dry Farming: Cultivation of crops in areas where rainfall is less than 750 mm per annum
  • Dryland Farming: Cultivation of crops in areas receiving rainfall above 750 mm
  • Rainfed Farming: Cultivation of crops in regions receiving more than 1,150 mm.
  • Dry-farmed grapes are thought to produce wine with more intense flavor, thanks to the fact that the sugars develop in concert with the acids and tannins, as they would in a natural situation
  • Some dry-farmed produce, like melons, must be picked ripe, which limits their ability to handle shipping.

2. a. Correlate the agro-climatic zones with agro-ecological regions of India. 20

Agro-Ecological Regions of India: Fundamentals of Geography
Agro-Climatic Regions of India: Fundamentals of Geography

2. b. Critically analyse the role of multinational corporations in India՚s economic development with suitable examples. 15

  • Foreign investment
  • Non-debt creating capital inflows
  • Technology transfer
  • Promotion of exports
  • Investment in infrastructure

2. c. Discuss how watershed management has becomes a tool in eradication of rural poverty in India. 15

  • joint forest management and watershed development programmes are schemes which can be successful in the regeneration of these common lands. Clearly, ‘pattas’ should be given to the rural poor in order to provide them access to a means of livelihood. There are several success stories, both in the area of joint forest management as well as watershed development by groups of people, especially women on common land, which could be replicated.
  • Using scientific methods, remote-sensing agencies at the Centre and State level would be asked to provide detailed maps showing land, water and other physical resources of the area, with the aid of photogrammetry and satellite imagery. The detailed maps would then be scrutinised to identify all possible watersheds. Planning along watershed lines would ensure minimum surface run-off, thus conserving water from rainfall.

3. a. Discuss the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides in agriculture and its impact on human health. 20

  • DTE Nov-Dec 2019

3. b. Examine ongoing space programmes of India and their implications for national security in future. 15

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  • Mission Shakti - ASAT
  • Chandrayaan
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  • Gaganyaan

3. c. Discuss the rainfall pattern and correlate it with spatial distribution of natural vegetation in India. 15

4. a. Discuss the political aspects of Himalaya. Explain how it has affected the geo-strategy, geo-politics and regional consciousness of Indian federalism. 20

4. b. Examine the development of information technology in India and its influence on work culture and society. 15

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  • IT companies have imported a ‘new age’ management ideology based on flat structures, lack of bureaucracy, openness, flexibility, and employee empowerment. But, due to the requirements of the outsourcing business, new forms of direct or ‘panoptical’ control over the work process have also emerged, which are linked to the rationalisation of the work process through the application of modular programming techniques and international quality standards
  • IT companies employ ‘normative’ management techniques such as the inculcation of common values Work, Culture and Sociality in the Indian IT Industry: A Sociological Study iii and emphasis on teamwork. This combination of direct and indirect modes of organisational control enables companies to maximise the productivity of employees
  • The reconstitution of family and gender relations, through a process that both reproduces pre-existing forms but also alters them in substantial ways; for instance, the resurgence of the ‘joint family’ with grandparents as primary caregivers for children. • The reinvention and reaffirmation of ‘traditional Indian culture’ , filtered through diverse transnational work experiences and articulated through the medium of the new consumer culture. This in turn is linked to the celebratory discourse about India՚s global success in IT. • Individualisation, not only in the workplace but also in social life, as IT employees are shaped into self-directed, goal-oriented, and autonomous individuals - a process that conflicts with existing communitarian social values, giving rise to internal tensions and conflicts within the family.

4. c. Explain the present status of age-structure and availability of workforce in India. 15

  • incremental workforce, especially the male, reduced to marginal workers category, whereas the high concentration of female in the category of marginal workers slightly reduced. Occupational distribution of workforce shows that cultivators were declining. Such a decline in agriculture was replaced by increasing agricultural labour.
  • Half of India՚s working-age population (15 years and above) , for the first time, is not contributing to any economic activity, The labour force participation rate (LFPR) stood at 49.8 per cent in 2017 - 18, falling sharply from 55.9 per cent in 2011 - 12 The report says the proportion of the active labour force declined twice for females between 2011 - 12 and 2017 - 18.

IAS Mains Geography Optional 2019 Solutions: Paper 2 Section A

- Published/Last Modified on: January 2, 2020

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