IAs Mains Optional Geography Paper 2019 Paper 2 – Section B with Solutions (Download PDF)

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Section- B Answer the following in about 150 words each: 10 × 5 = 50

5. a. Present the salient features of West flowing rivers of India. 10

3 Himalayan Rivers, 4 West & 4 East Flowing Peninsular Rivers - Drainage System in India
  • East and west rivers differences

5. b. Discuss the problems of wildlife conservation and management in India. 10

Wildlife Conservation - Focus on National Parks, Biosphere Reserves and Wildlife Sanctuaries
NCERT Class 8 Science Chapter 7: Conservation of Plants and Animals (NsO/NsTsE) | English

5. c. Correlate the price of land, vertical growth of slums in large cities of India. 10

  • providing adequate land for affordable urban housing
  • scarce land, growing populations, the rise of modern service economies, and rising oil prices, urban planners in many developed countries are abandoning suburban auto-dependent planning and increasingly favouring densely populated urban centres, with closely located residential areas and workplaces, good public transport and plentiful local shopping.

5. d. Assess the importance of foot loose industries in the development of backward regions in India. 10

  • Bring growth in backward areas

5. e. Examine the problems of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) in India. 10

Expected Questions on Geography 2019 (UPsC CsE/SsC/IBPs)

6. a. “Intrabasins linkages of rivers are more feasible economically, socially and ecologically” . Discuss with suitable examples from India. 20

  • Narmada Valley Development Authority (NVDA) and Water Resources Department (WRD) , government of Madhya Pradesh (MP) formulated a comprehensive project for basin/sub-basins between Onkeshwar to Narmada Sagar to utilize their water before declaring surplus

6. b. Provide a reasoned account on emerging conurbations in India and explain with suitable examples the problems associated with it. 15

Urban Settlements, Urban Growth and Hierarchy of Growth: Fundamentals of Geography
  • A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urbanized and/or nominally rural areas which, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form a continuous urban and economically developed area that functions as a single economic entity.
  • mega-conurbation can be said to be a largely open, self-organizing, and adaptive system of (1) physical structures that are partly visible and partly invisible; (2) human beings acting both individually and through organizations; (3) institutions that structure patterns of action and change; and (4) aggregations of urban spatial fabric and capital investment that are created during processes of urbanization
  • People flows; Capital flows; Commodity flows; Information flows, from face to face to electronically mediated in cyberspace (the noosphere) ; Food flows; Water flows; Electric energy flows; Transportation flows; Flows of solid and liquid waste and air pollution.
  • Ahmedabad-Vadodara in Gujarat, Pune-Mumbai in Maharashtra, New Delhi-Gurgaon in National Capital Region (NCR) , Mohali-Phagwara con- necting Amritsar and Jalandhar in Punjab

6. c. Explain the relevance of green tourism for sustainable development of mountain environment in India. 15

  • In the present context, mountain eco- tourism is defined as follows: Tourism that does not degrade the natural and cultural environment of mountain regions, provides economic, environmental, and social benefits to mountain communities (local resi- dents) , and offers a high-quality expe- rience for visitors.
  • Mountain ecotourism could greatly benefit from international collaboration, for example, by creating an international system to designate mountain ecotourism sites similar to the UNESCO World Heritage Site designation system. Such a program of Designation of International Mountain Ecotourism Sites (DIMES) would involve stakeholders in mountain ecotourism in developing a set of criteria and indicators to provide a basis for designating a mountain location as an ecotourism destination

7. a. Analyse the role of interstate migration in regional disparity in india. 20


7. b. Give a reasoned account of high level of pollution in North Indian cities as compared to south Indian cities. 15

  • DTE May 2018
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recently released an updated list of most polluted cities globally. It turns out that if we rank cities on the basis of average annual PM2.5 concentration for the year 2016, 14 of the 20 most polluted cities are in India. It is worth noting that all these cities, including Kanpur, Faridabad, Varanasi, Gaya, Patna, Delhi, Lucknow, Agra, Muzaffarpur, Srinagar, Gurgaon, Jaipur, Patiala and Jodhpur are situated in the northern part of the country.
  • Wind convergence
  • Loose alluvial soil
  • Seasonal patterns of PM
  • According to the WHO database, the average annual PM2.5 concentration in Kanpur in 2016 was 173 ug/m3, while it was found to be 52 ug/m3 and 47 ug/m3 in Chennai and Bengaluru, respectively. These cities do have the inherent advantage of coastal breeze influence that tends to dissipate pollution.
  • Himalayas prevent polluted air from escaping to the north creating the so called “valley effect” . Other studies have pointed out that the formation of low pressure troughs across this region causes winds to converge, resulting in trapping of local, as well as pollution from outside.

7. c. Analyse the incentive oriented programmes for removing regional imbalances in socio-economic development of India. 15

  • Besides the State-specific efforts for reducing intra-State regional disparities, a number of Centrally Sponsored Programmes have been in operation for the last two to three decades for taking care of specific aspects of backwardness of such regions. The Tribal Development Programme, the Hill Area Development Programme, the Western Ghat Development Programme, the Drought Prone Area Programme and Desert Development Programme are examples of such ongoing efforts.

8. a. With special reference to India examine the changes in the nature and patterns of international trade. Mention the major influencing factors. 20

  • The patterns of India՚s foreign trade have changed in the past three decades. Exchange with emerging markets and developing countries has expanded spectacularly. India՚s imports, however, have expanded faster than the exports, so balance-of-payments problems may make the economy vulnerable.
  • The patterns of India՚s foreign trade have changed considerably since the early 1990s. From the financial year 1990 ⁄ 91 to the one of 2017/18, the total value of goods exports increased more than 16 times: from $ 18 billion to over $ 300 billion. During the same time span, goods imports increased almost 20 times: from $ 24 billion to more than $ 460 billion.
  • Oil still accounts for 20 % to 35 % of the total import expenditure every year, depending on whether the volatile oil price is high or low.

8. b. Describe the altitudinal and spatial geo-environmental hazards in the Himalayas. 15

  • The ‘greater Himalayan region’ , sometimes called the ‘Roof of the World’ , is noticeably impacted by climate change. The most widely reported impact is the rapid reduction in glaciers, which has profound future implications for downstream water resources.
  • Continuing climate change is predicted to lead to major changes in the strength and timing of the Asian monsoon, inner Asian high pressure systems, and winter westerlies - the main systems affecting the climate of the Himalayan region.
  • Rising temperature
  • Glacial retreat
  • Water related hazards

8. c. “India is emerging as global power in relation to Indian ocean realm.” Elaborate. 15

  • in 2014, Australia and India had conducted 11 defence activities together, with the figure reaching 38 in 2018.
  • Emergent power of the Indian Ocean region in world affairs. The region comprises the ocean itself and the countries that border it. These include Australia, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Madagascar, Somalia, Tanzania, South Africa, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
  • The economies of many Indian Ocean countries are expanding rapidly as investors seek new opportunities. Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, and Tanzania witnessed economic growth in excess of 5 % in 2017-well above the global average of 3.2 % .
  • Broader groups are also emerging. In 1997, nations bordering the Bay of Bengal established the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multisectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) , which works to promote trade links and is currently negotiating a free trade agreement. Australia, along with 21 other border states, is a member of the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) which seeks to promote sustainable economic growth, trade liberalisation, and security.
  • Overfishing, coastal degradation, and pollution are also harming the ocean.

IAS Mains Geography Optional 2019 Solutions: Paper 2 Section B

- Published/Last Modified on: January 2, 2020

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