IAS Prelims CSAT Paper 2 2016 Solved (Answers): Questions 1 to 25 - Explanations @ YouTube Examrace [ IAS Updates ]

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As we said in our video just before the IAS prelims 2016, CSAT-2 has been highly unpredictable. This time paper was more difficult especially for students with non-mathematical and non-English backgrounds. You can see this just by reading the 1 passage. Based on the feedback we have received so far, students who went through our CSAT Paper-2 postal course excelled. Our course starts building the mathematical and English skills from the very basics, so no student is left behind! Our CSAT Paper-2 YouTube video lectures directly covered many of the questions, so please start utilizing this key resource!

Please note that CSAT this time (2016) is qualifying. However from the paper it looks like competition is going to be tough. The selection rate from prelims is usually 2% - So leave no stone unturned!

Directions for the following 6 (six) items:

Read the following two passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.

Passage-1

Accountability, or the lack of it, in governance generally, and civil services, in particular, is a major factor underlying the deficiencies in governance and public administration. Designing an effective framework for accountability has been a key element of the reform agenda. A fundamental issue is whether civil services should be accountable to the political executive of the day or to society at large. In other words, how should internal and external accountability be reconciled? Internal accountability is sought to be achieved by internal performance monitoring, official supervision by bodies like the —Central-Vigilance Commission-and-Comptroller and Auditor—General, and judicial review of executive decisions. Articles 311 and 312 of the Indian Constitution provide job security and safeguards to the civil services, especially the All India Services. The framers of the Constitution had envisaged that provision of these safeguards would result in a civil service that is not totally subservient to the political executive but will have the strength to function in larger public interest. The need to balance internal and external accountability is thus built into the Constitution. The issue is where to draw the line. Over the years, the emphasis seems to have tilted in favour of greater internal accountability of the civil services to the political leaders of the day who in turn are expected to be externally accountable to the society at large through the election process. This system for seeking accountability to Society has not worked out, and has led to several adverse consequences for governance.

Some special measures can be considered for improving accountability in civil services. Provisions of articles 311 and 312 should be reviewed and laws and regulations framed to ensure external accountability of civil services. The proposed Civil Services Bill seeks to address some of these requirements. The respective roles of professional civil services and the political executive should he defined so that professional managerial functions and management of civil services are depoliticized. For this purpose, effective statutory civil service boards should be created at the centre and in the states. Decentralization and devolution of authority to bring government and decision making closer to the people also helps to enhance accountability.

1. According to the passage, which of the following factor/factors led to the adverse consequences for governance/public administration?

1. Inability of civil services to strike a balance between internal and external accountabilities

2. Lack of sufficient professional training to the officers of All India Services

3. Lack of proper service benefits in civil services

4. Lack of Constitutional provisions to define the respective roles of professional civil services vis-a-vis political executive in this context

Select the correct answer using the code given below :

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 4 only

(d) 2, 3 and 4

Answer. c

2. With reference to the passage, the following assumptions have been made :

1. Political executive is an obstacle to the accountability of the civil services to the society

2. In the present framework of Indian polity, the political executive is no longer accountable to the society

Which of these assumptions is/are valid?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer. a

3. Which one of the following is the essential message implied by this passage?

(a) Civil services are not accountable to the society they are serving

(b) Educated and enlightened persons are not taking up political leadership

(c) The framers of the Constitution did not envisage the problems being encountered by the civil services

(d) There is a need and scope for reforms to improve the accountability of civil services

Answer. d

4. According to the passage, which one of the following is not a means of enhancing internal accountability of civil services?

(a) Better job security and safeguards

(b) Supervision by Central Vigilance Commission

(c) Judicial review of executive decisions

(d) Seeking accountability through enhanced participation by people in decision making process

Answer. d

Passage-2

In general, religious traditions stress our duty to god, or to some universal ethical principle. Our duties to one another derive from these. The religious concept of rights is primarily derived from our relationship to this divinity or principle and the implication it has on our other relationships. This correspondence between rights and duties is critical to any further understanding of justice. But, for justice to be practiced; rights and duties cannot remain formal abstraction. They must be grounded in a community (common unity) bound together by a sense of common union (communion). Even as a personal virtue, this solidarity is essential to the practice and understanding of justice.

5. With reference to the passage, the following assumptions have been made :

1. Human relationships are derived from their religious traditions

2. Human beings can be duty bound only if they believe in god

3. Religious traditions are essential to practice and understand justice

Which of these assumption(s) is/are valid?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer. a

6. Which one of the following is the crux of this passage?

(a) Our duties to one another derive from our religious traditions

(b) Having relationship to the divine principle is a great virtue

(c) Balance between rights and duties is crucial to the delivery of justice in a society

(d) Religious concept of rights is primarily derived from our relationship to god

Answer. c

7. A ate grapes and pineapple; B ate grapes and oranges; C ate oranges, pineapple and apple; D ate grapes, apple and pineapple. After taking fruits, B and C fell sick. In the light of the above facts, it can be said that the cause of sickness was:

(a) Apple

(b) Pineapple

(c) Grapes

(d) Oranges

Answer. d

8. Consider the following statements.

1. The rate of population growth is increasing in the country

2. The death rate is declining faster in the country compared to birth rate

3. The birth rate is declining faster in the country compared to death rate

4. Rural-urban migration is taking place regularly in the country

Which one of the following conclusions may be true in the light of the above facts?

(a) The rate of population growth is increasing due to rural-urban migration

(b) The rate of population growth is increasing due to decline in death rate only

(c) The rate of population growth is increasing due to increase in birth rate only

(d) The rate of population growth is increasing due to faster decline in death rate than in birth rate

Answer. d

9. A person X was driving in a place where all roads ran either north-south or east-west, forming a grid. Roads are at a distance of 1 km from each other in a parallel. He started at the intersection of two roads, drove 3 km north, 3 km west and 4 km south. Which further route could bring him back to his starting point, if the same route is not repeated?

(a) 3 km east, then 2 km south

(b) 3 km east, then 1 km north

(c) 1 km north, then 2 km west

(d) 3 km south, then 1 km north

Answer. b

10. Consider the following statement:

“We shall go either for a picnic or for trekking”.

Which of the following, if true, would falsify this claim?

(a) We go for a picnic but not for trekking

(b) Activities such as picnic and trekking are encouraged by the health authorities

(c) We go for trekking and not for picnic

(d) We do not go either for picnic or for trekking

Answer. d

11. There were 50 faculty member comprising 30 males and the rest females. No male faculty member knew music, but many of the female faculty members did. The Head of the institution invited six faculty members to a tea party by draw of lots. At the party it was discovered that no members knew music. The conclusion is that:

(a) the party comprised male faculty members only

(b) the party comprised only those female faculty members who could not give renderings in music

(c) the party comprised both male and female faculty members

(d) nothing can be said about the gender composition of the party

Answer. d

12. Five people A, B, C, D and E are seated about a round table. Every chair is spaced equidistant from adjacent chairs.

(i) C is seated next to A

(ii) A is seated two seats from D

(iii) B is not seated next to A

On the basis of above information, which of the following must be true?

1. D is seated next to B

2. E is seated next to A

3. D and C are separated by two seats

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 3 only

(d) Neither 1 nor 2 nor 3

Answer . b

13. There are five hobby clubs in a college —photography, yachting, chess, electronics and gardening. The gardening group meets every second day, the electronics group meets every third day, the chess group meets every fourth day, the yachting group meets every fifth day and the photography group meets every sixth day. How many times do all the five groups meet on the same day within 180 days?

(a) 5

(b) 18

(c) 10

(d) 3

Answer. d

14. There are some nectar-filled flowers on a tree and some bees are hovering on it. If one bee lands on each flower, one bee will be left out. If two bees land on each flower, one flower will be left out. The number of flowers and bees respectively are:

(a) 2 and 4

(b) 3 and 2

(c) 3 and 4

(d) 4 and 3

Answer. c

Directions for the following 5 (five) items: Consider the following information and answer the five items that follow:

There are five persons in a group — P, Q, R, S and T. The group has one doctor, one lawyer and one artist. P and S are unmarried students. T is a man married to one of the group members. Q is the brother of P and is neither doctor nor artist. R is not doctor.

15. Who is the doctor?

(a) T

(b) P

(c) Q

(d) R

Answer. a

16. Who is the artist?

(a) P

(b) Q

(c) R

(d) T

Answer. c

17. Who is the spouse of R?

(a) P

(b) T

(c) Q

(d) S

Answer. b

18. Who is the lawyer?

(a) P

(b) Q

(c) R

(d) S

Answer. b

19. Who of the following is definitely a man?

(a) P

(b) S

(c) Q

(d) None of the above

Answer. c

20. There is an order of 19000 quantity of a particular product from a customer. The firm produces 1000 quantity of that product per day out of which 5% are unfit for sale. In how many days will the order be completed?

(a) 18

(b) 19

(c) 20

(d) 22

Answer. c

Directions for the following 5 (five) items : Read the following two passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.

Passage-1

Biomass as fuel for power, heat, and transport has the highest mitigation potential of all renewable sources. It comes from agriculture and forest residues as well as from energy crops. The biggest challenge in using biomass residues is a long-term reliable supply delivered to the power plant at reasonable costs; the key problems are logistical constraints and the costs of fuel collection. Energy crops, if not managed properly, compete with food production and may have undesirable impacts on food prices. Biomass production is also sensitive to the physical impacts of a changing climate.

Projections of the future role of biomass are probably overestimated, given the limits to the sustainable biomass supply, unless breakthrough technologies substantially increase productivity. Climate-energy models project that biomass use could increase nearly four-fold to around 150 — 200 exajoules, almost a quarter of world primary energy in 2050. However the maximum sustainable technical potential of biomass resources (both residues and energy crops) without disruption of food and forest resources ranges from 80 — 170 exajoules a year by 2050, and only part of this is realistically and economically feasible. In addition, some climate models rely on biomass-based carbon capture and storage, an unproven technology, to achieve negative emissions and to buy some time during the first half of the century.

Some liquid biofuels such as corn-based ethanol, mainly for transport, may aggravate rather than ameliorate carbon emissions on a life-cycle basis. Second generation biofuels, based on ligno-cellulosic feedstocks — such as straw, bagasse, grass and wood — hold the promise of sustainable production that is high-yielding and emit low levels of greenhouse gases, but these are still in the R & D stage.

21. What is/are the present constraint/constraints in using biomass as fuel for power generation?

1. Lack of sustainable supply of biomass

2. Biomass production competes with food production

3. Bio-energy may not always be low carbon on a life-cycle basis

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer. d

22. Which of the following can lead to food security problem?

1. Using agricultural and forest residues as feedstock for power generation

2. Using biomass for carbon capture and storage

3. Promoting the cultivation of energy crops

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer. b

23. In the context of using biomass, which of the following is/are the characteristic/characteristics of the sustainable production of biofuel?

1. Biomass as a fuel for power generation could meet all the primary energy requirements of the world by 2050

2. Biomass as a fuel for power generation does not necessarily disrupt food and forest resources

3. Biomass as a fuel for power generation could help in achieving negative emissions, given certain nascent technologies

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer. c

24. With reference to the passage, following assumptions have been made:

1. Some climate-energy models suggest that the use of biomass as a fuel for power generation helps in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions

2. It is not possible to use biomass as a fuel for power generation without disrupting food and forest resources

Which of these assumptions is/are valid?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer. a

Passage-2

We are witnessing a dangerous dwindling of biodiversity in our food supply. The green revolution is a mixed blessing. Over time farmers have come to rely heavily on broadly adapted, high yield crops to the exclusion of varieties adapted to the local conditions. Mono-cropping vast fields with the same genetically uniform seeds helps boost yield and meet immediate hunger needs. Yet high-yield varieties are also genetically weaker crops that require expensive chemical fertilizers and toxic pesticides. In our focus on increasing the amount of food we produce today, we have accidentally put ourselves at risk for food shortages in future.

25. Which among the following is the most logical and critical inference that can be made from the above passage?

(a) In our agricultural practices, we have become heavily dependent on expensive chemical fertilizers and toxic pesticides only due to green revolution

(b) Monocropping vast fields with high-yield varieties is possible due to green revolution

(c) Monocropping with high-yield varieties is the only way to ensure food security to millions

(d) Green revolution can pose a threat to biodiversity in food supply and food security in the long run

Answer. d

- Published/Last Modified on: August 7, 2016