Reading Comprehension Passages for Live Class on 5<Sup>th</Sup> March 2019 at 10:30 Am (Download PDF)

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Please find below the passages for live classes for reading comprehension to be held on Fifth March 2019 at 10: 30 am. Join the class at. This session will have 3 passages with a total of 10 questions.

Reading Comprehension Practice Questions - CsAT/UGC

This session will have 3 passages with a total of 10 questions. This section is highly useful for NET, IAS, SSC, Bank PO and IBPS students. For complete study material for IAS CSAT Paper 2 visit - /IAS/IAS-FlexiPrep-Program/Postal-Courses/Examrace-IAS-CSAT-Prelims-Paper-II-Series. htm, for practice to past papers visit https: ⁄ ⁄ www.doorsteptutor. com/Exams/IAS/Prelims/

For NET Paper 1 postal course visit /NTA-UGC-NET/NTA-UGC-NET-FlexiPrep-Program/Postal-Courses/Examrace-NTA-UGC-NET-Paper-I-Series. htm and for practice sets visit https: ⁄ ⁄ www.doorsteptutor. com/Exams/UGC/

1. Read the following passage and answer the questions (Topic - Environment) .

Engineers set to sea on September 8, to deploy a trash collection device to corral plastic litter floating between California and Hawaii in an attempt to clean up the world՚s largest garbage patch in the heart of the Pacific Ocean. The 2,000-foot long floating boom was being towed from San Francisco to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch an island of trash twice the size of Texas. The system was created by The Ocean Cleanup.

“The plastic is really persistent and it doesn՚t go away by itself and the time to act is now,” says Boyan Slat, founder of the organization, adding that researchers with his organization found plastic going back to the 1960s and 1970s bobbing in the patch. The buoyant, U-shaped barrier made of plastic and with a tapered 10-foot deep screen, is intended to act like a coastline, trapping some of the 1.8 trillion pieces of plastic that scientists estimated are swirling in that gyre but allowing marine life to safely swim beneath it.

Fitted with solar power lights, cameras, sensors and satellite antennas, the cleanup system will communicate its position at all times, allowing a support vessel to fish out the collected plastic every few months and transport it to dry land where it will be recycled, said Slat. Shipping containers filled with the fishing nets, plastic bottles, laundry baskets and other plastic refuse scooped up by the system being deployed Saturday are expected to be back on land within a year, he said.

“If you don՚t stop plastics from flowing into the ocean, it will be a Sisyphean task,” said George Leonard, chief scientist of the Ocean Conservancy, a nonprofit environmental advocacy group, citing the Greek myth of a task never completed. He added that on September 15 about 1 million volunteers around the world will collect trash from beaches and waterways as part of the Ocean Conservancy՚s annual International Coastal Cleanup. Volunteers last year collected about 10,000 tons of plastics worldwide over two hours, he said. Leonard also raised concerns that marine and wildlife could be entangled by the net that will hang below the surface. He said he hopes Slat՚s group is transparent with its data and shares information with the public about what happens with the first deployment.

2. Read the following passage and answer the questions (Topic - Science) .

It has been 200 years since the first human-to-human blood transfusion was carried out on a man suffering from carcinoma. From storing blood in glass bottles to plastic pouches and discovering compatibility with blood groups to testing for infections, blood transfusion has evolved significantly. Yet, the lifesaving medical procedure ails from the lack of a system in place, say experts. On December 22,1818, James Blundell, a noted physician, physiologist and obstetrician carried out the first human to human blood transfusion. Blundell with the help of surgeon Henry Crine Noyes, his niece՚s husband, transfused a 35-year-old man with what would now be called gastric carcinoma, but was then described as ‘scirrhosity of the phylorus’ . Approximately 14 ounces of blood were administered by syringe in small amounts, from several donors, at intervals of 5 - 6 minutes. Despite temporary improvement in the condition, the patient died 56 hours later.

Between 1818 to 1829, Blundell and his colleagues performed ten transfusions using human blood. The first successful transfusion was of a woman who recovered from severe post-partum hemorrhage after receiving eight ounces of blood from Blundell՚s assistant during the course of three hours. The case was published in The Lancet in 1829.

“We have come a long way. But even today, lives are put at risk by transmission of infections. This is happening only because the government has made zero efforts to put a system in place” , says Dr. Zarin Bharucha, chairperson of the Federation of Bombay Blood Banks and Red Cross Mumbai՚s blood transfusion committee.

3. Read the following passage and answer the questions (Topic - Ethics) .

In the winter of 2018, an intriguing yet disturbing news broke out among the Scientific community. The Chinese researcher He Jiankui had set off a storm when he claimed that he had created the world՚s first babies, a pair of twin girls, genetically edited with CRISPR-cas9. He said that the twins had genes now that protected them from HIV. Ideally this should have been a laudable scientific advancement. But Mr. He has been condemned, not only by peers in China but by geneticists, biotechnologists and ethicists world over.

He broke the scientific and regulatory protocol by not vetting his experiments, which involved embryos and also hopeful parents, by his organization՚s ethics committees. He also expounded on his work to non-scientists before submitting his work for peer-review. These are enough grounds to invalidate any medico-scientific investigation, however novel and groundbreaking. Yet the greater consternation is that an ethical red line has been transgressed.

So, what would be permissible? The current international consensus is that editing ‘germ line’ (or reproductive) cells of healthy humans is unethical and should only be used as a last resort as it could mean introducing unknown and potentially harmful changes in subsequent generations and even entire populations. While the principle of ‘do no harm’ pervades scientific practice, particularly in light of the early 20th century՚s European and American experiments with eugenics, it shouldn՚t be forgotten that ethical norms in science aren՚t framed in a higher moral plane. What is permissible and ethical is also influenced by business interests, concerns among countries that they might lose a competitive advantage, and how medical advances have actually progressed.

It might seem that the Space Wars of the 1960s between the U. S. and the Soviet Union hark back to a bygone era, but the U. S. has on many occasions expressed concerns about China shrinking its scientific dominance. The National Science Foundation՚s Science and Engineering Indicators 2018 report says, “The U. S. still leads by many S&T measures, but our lead is decreasing in certain areas that are important to our country … from gene editing to artificial intelligence … and it՚s critical that we stay at the forefront of science to mitigate those risks.” When China announced its first CRISPR-led human trial in 2016, Nature quoted cancer immunotherapy expert Carl June as saying, “I think this is going to trigger ‘Sputnik 2.0’ , a biomedical duel on progress between China and the United States.” Private companies in both countries have spent billions on the prospects of gene-editing. Thus, where cash is already riding on a technology that՚s still many years away, those who develop tools towards realizing these goals can often justify their ventures, however ethically problematic they may be.

- Published/Last Modified on: March 5, 2019

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