UPSC CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM 2017: General Studies Paper – 1 (Part 2) (Download PDF)


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1. The spirit of tolerance and love is not only an interesting feature of Indian society from very early times, but it is also playing an important part at the present. Elaborate. (250 words)

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IAS Mains 2017 GS Paper 1 Discussion (Part 2)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains IAS Mains 2017 GS Paper 1 Discussion (Part 2)

  • Tolerance implies the disposition to tolerate or allow the existence of beliefs, practices or habits differing from one’s own; now often freedom from bigotry, sympathetic understanding of others’ beliefs, etcetera, without acceptance of them
  • Tolerance is an independent, individual choice and cannot be forced onto anyone. It is also a deeply patronizing value.
  • The Jaina doctrine of anekanta-vada and the Hindu approaches of adhikara and ista-devata capture the spirit of tolerating plural truth-claims in all walks of life.

Religious tolerance

  • National flag has Ashoka’s Wheel of Law (symbol taken from a Buddhist era) as a reminder for citizens and state to commit to dharma. Ashoka’s dharma was secular based on a collective morality that hinged on undoing the worst practices of Indian society.
  • Bring RTE in education in private schools
  • Removing recruitment barriers based on surnames but rather focus on qualifications
  • No intolerance towards dark skinned people or lower caste people
  • Removing untouchability
  • Legal abolition of sati

2. Examine how the decline of traditional artisanal industry in colonial India crippled the rural economy. (250 words)

  • The raw material consists of descriptions of industries in which artisan enterprise was significant in this period, and remained so beyond the period.
  • There are such studies, on handloom weaving, leather, brassware (integrate home market and create export market), carpets, and gold thread (jari).
  • Two of these industries, handloom weaving and jari, were deeply influenced by exposure to imported substitutes
  • Cheap imports
  • Industrial revolution in Britain
  • No source of livelihood for rural people

3. Highlight the importance of the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian Independence since the twenties of the last century. (250 words)

Refer - (NCERT Class 10 Chapter 3 – Nationalism in India)

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NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 3: Nationalism in India

Dr. Manishika Jain explains NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 3: Nationalism in India

  • Non-cooperation was launched in 1920 (by Jallianwala Bagh massacre, the disturbances in Punjab and the Rowlatt Act) and was parallel to Khilafat movement
  • Motilal Nehru called for the framing of a new Constitution to transfer real power to India in the first session of the central legislative assembly
  • Purna Swaraj declaration, or Declaration of the Independence of India
  • Kakori train robbery
  • Central Assembly bomb case
  • Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) established in October 1924 in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh by revolutionaries like Ramprasad Bismil, Jogesh Chatterjee, Chandrashekhar Azad, Yogendra Shukla and Sachindranath Sanya
  • In Lahore on 17 December 1928, Bhagat Singh, Azad and Rajguru assassinated Saunders, a police official involved in deadly lathi-charge on Lala Lajpat Rai.
  • Kotwal dasta in Maharashtra

4. Account for variations in oceanic salinity and discuss its multi-dimensional effects. (250 words)

  • Evaporation
  • Temperature
  • Precipitation
  • Rainwater
  • Meltwater
  • Atmospheric pressure and wind direction

Location and characteristics of sea

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Thermohaline Circulation & Ocean Salinity Made Simple

In this session, the concept of ocean salinity, where does salinity comes from, how is salinity calculated, sea life and salinity and finally the concept of thermohaline circulation are explained by Dr. Manishika Jain.

Thermohaline circulation

  • Petroleum refineries are not necessarily located nearer to crude oil producing areas, particularly in many of the developing countries. Explain its implications. (250 words)
  • Industry is located close to market – consumption driven

Explain with help of Weber’s industrial location model


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Weber’s Industrial Location Theory & Smith’s Concept: Fundamentals of Geography

Weber’s Theory of Industrial Location and Smith’s Spatial Margins of Profitability are elaborately discussed by Dr. Manishika in this session.

  • Saudi Arabia - Ras Tanura refinery
  • Kuwait - Mina-El-Ahmedi refinery
  • India – Jamnagar near sikka port; Trombay, Mangalore, Kochi, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Haldia

For transport and export

5. In what way can floods be converted into a sustainable source of irrigation and all-weather inland navigation in India? (250 words)

  • Interlinking of rivers
  • Draining extra water to deficit areas
  • Planning and execution
  • Channels and diversions
  • Discuss 3 recent interlinking projects of India

Work on Three River Interlinking Projects to Begin

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24 Major Government Schemes, Projects and Yojanas 2017: Summary

Dr. Manishika Jain explains 24 Major Schemes, Projects and Yojanas 2017: Summary

  • What characteristics can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50 percent of the world population residing in Monsoon Asia? (250 words)

Tropical Monsoon -

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Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 16: Tropical Monsoon & Tropical Marine Climate

Dr. Manishika Jain explains the Goh Cheng Leong Certificate Physical & Human Geography Chapter 16: Tropical Monsoon & Tropical Marine Climate

Global Monsoon -

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Global Monsoon Systems in Climatology - 5 Regimes

Dr. Manishika Jain explains what are monsoons, the different monsoon regions of the world and formation of monsoons

Indian Monsoon -

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Indian Monsoon - Factors, Theories, Phenomena & Characteristics

Dr. Manishika Jain in this lecture explains the concept of Indian Monsoon.

Tibetan plateau -

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Tibetan Plateau - Role in Climatology & Latest Developments

Dr. Manishika Jain explains the role of Tibetan Plateau in climatology and the latest developments and changes at Tibetan Plateau.

  • Uncertain
  • Variations in amount of rainfall
  • Regional variation
  • Heavy spells with dry periods

8. The women’s questions arose in modern India as a part of the 19th century social reform movement. What are the major issues and debates concerning women in that period? (250 words)

Refer - (NCERT Class 8 History chapter 9: Women, caste and reforms)

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NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 9: Women, Caste and Reform

Dr. Manishika Jain explains NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 9: Women, Caste and Reform

  • Political, social, economic dimensions
  • Sati – discouraged by Cornwallis, Minto and Lord Hastings, efforts by Rammohan Roy
  • Native Marriage Act - marriage of girls below the age of 14 and boys below 18 years were forbidden. Later Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1978 raised the age for girls from 15 to 18 years and for boys 18 to 21
  • Lack of education – illiteracy – efforts by Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Christian missionaries & Charles Wood’s dispatch on Education


  • Widow issues – widow remarriage - Kandukuri Veeresalingam
  • Rajahmundry Social Reform Association founded to emphasize anti-nautch movement to discontinue the hiring of nautch girls.
  • Derozio’s Young Bengal Movement for eradication of social evils, female education and improvement in the condition of women.
  • Tatvabodhini Sabha by Debendranath Tagore supported widow remarriage, the abolition of polygamy, women’s education.
  • Pandita Ramabai to educate women
  • Sarojini Naidu stood for voting rights for women, and took an active interest in the political situation in the country. She also helped to set up the All India Women’s Conference.
  • Begum of Bhopal, Syed Ahmad Khan and Sheikh Abdullah in Aligarh and Karmat Hussain in Lucknow spearheaded a movement to improve women’s education.

9. Distinguish between religiousness/religiosity and communalism giving one example of how the former has got transformed into the latter in independent India. (250 words)

  • The terms religiousness/religiosity are used interchangeably
  • Defined as an individual’s conviction, devotion, and veneration towards a divinity
  • Religiosity encapsulate all dimensions of religion comprehensively
  • In narrow range, denote an extreme view and over dedication to religious rituals and traditions. This rigid form of religiosity is viewed as a negative side of the religious experience, typified by an over involvement in religious practices which are deemed to be beyond the social norms of one’s faith.

Communalism is an ideology, which consists of three elements:

  • A belief that people who follow the same religion have common secular interests i. e. they have same political, economic and social interests

  • Common secular interests of one religion are dissimilar and divergent from the interests of the follower of another religion.

  • The interests of the follower of the different religion are seen to be completely incompatible and hostile.

Communalism is political trade in religion

Stages of communal development

Rise of nationalist

Liberal communism by Jinnah and Malviya

Extreme communism by Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha (demand for separate nation)

Note on Shah Baano Case, Uniform civil code

Case studies of ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits, Assam communal violence, Muzzafarnagar violence

10. “The growth of cities as I. T. hubs has opened up new avenues of employment, but has also created new problems”. Substantiate this statement with examples (250 words)

  • Industry 4.0 moving to automation - Loss of jobs
  • Constant change
  • Obsolesce
  • Problem solving
  • Innovation
  • Shift from huge desktops to laptops to tablets to phablets – ever evolving and dynamic
  • Retention of talent in Indian IT companies remains a long-standing problem and needs to be effectively addressed.
  • Revamp business models
  • Tackle competition from MNCs
  • Lack of people’s willingness to adopt to new technologies

- Published/Last Modified on: September 26, 2018

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