UPSC CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM 2017: General Studies Paper – 3 (Part - 1) (Download PDF)


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1. Among several factors for India’s potential growth, savings rate is the most effective one. Do you agree? What are the other factors available for growth potential? (Answer in 150 words)

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IAS Mains 2017 GS Paper 3 Solutions Discussion (Part 1)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains IAS Mains 2017 GS Paper 3 Discussion (Part 1)

  • Economic growth - rising GDP or PCI
  • Harrod Domar Model explains growth rate as ratio of savings rate to capital output ratio
  • Factors for growth of industries:
  • Health of government and institutional architecture
  • Robust private sector
  • Investment rate
  • Reduced capital output ratio
  • Increased setup of industries
  • Imparting industries and vocational training
  • Land acquisition
  • Labor laws
  • Taxation system
  • Monsoon
  • Unhealthy conditions
  • Project delays
  • Policy paralysis

Domestic investments - on banks and other investment schemes like Mutual funds, stock market, trust funds, ETFs etc. MSME sector constitute 45 % industrial production and farmers

Capital to the banks comes from depositors savings, if that saving rate is at low that restrict the lending capacity of banks, which in turn reduce the investment rate finally led to less growth of the economy

2. Account for the failure of manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labor-intensive exports rather than capital-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labor-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports.

  • Encourage the labor-intensive industries/sectors like garment, leather etc.
  • Implement export promotion schemes for labor-intensive sector
  • Relaxation of labor laws
  • Skill development of people
  • Tax relaxations must be provided
  • Ensure quality of product by improving the process according to the international standards
  • Create separate industrial corridors
  • Reduce the burden on the employer in case of the social security benefit contributions
  • Conclude agreements with foreign countries in order to promote the exports of these product.

3. Examine the developments of Airports in India through Joint Ventures under Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model. What are the challenges faced by the authorities in this regard.

  • Rehabilitation of affected people
  • Land acquisition
  • Capital risk
  • Low rate of returns
  • Project viability and location
  • Timely implementation and clearance
  • Airport maintenance
  • Kelkar committee report

4. Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India?

  • Green revolution – HYV, fertilizers, machinery
  • Evergreen revolution -
  • Sweet revolution
  • White revolution –operation flood (dairy)
  • Yellow revolution – edible oils
  • Grey - fertilizers
  • Golden revolution - horticulture
  • Rainbow revolution – all aspects (silk, apiculture)
  • Technology driven scheme
  • Blue revolution

5. What are the reasons for poor acceptance of cost effective small processing unit? How the food-processing unit will be helpful to uplift the socio-economic status of poor farmers?

Cold chain storage

Value additions

Mainly for perishable products

Reasons for poor acceptance of cost effective small processing unit are:

  • Lack proper cold chain supply system

  • No proper marketing facilities

  • Quality of the products

  • Food habits of people

  • No regular supply of inputs

  • Economically non-viable if units are small.

Refer - (Kurukshetra April 2018 – Technology for Rural Development - RuTAG)

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Technology for Rural Development: Kurukshetra May 2018 Summary

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6. Stem cell therapy is gaining popularity in India to treat a wide variety of medical conditions including leukaemia, Thallessemia, damaged sornea and several burns. Describe briefly, what stem cell therapy is and what advantages it has over other treatments?

  • Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use
  • Stem cells offer a viable source of replacement cells to treat diseases and can potentially reduce the morbidity and mortality for those awaiting transplants
  • By directing stem cells to differentiate into specialised cell types, there is the exciting possibility to provide a renewable source of replacement cells for those suffering from diseases
  • Can cure organs where replacement is not possible like brain, bone marrow and so on
  • Simple process without surgery
  • Provide permanent solutions

7. India has achieved remarkable successes in unmanned space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbitter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics? Explain critically

MOM (Mars Orbitor Mission) has successfully launched in its first attempt with low cost (almost one tenth of USA’s cost)

(Gaganyaan Mission)

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Does India Need a Manned Mission to Space? Answer Writing - Writing Wednesdays

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Covers major topics for answer writing Does India need a Manned Mission to Space? Discuss in light of recent space development and rise of private players.

  • India got membership in MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime) recently, without which other members of group don’t share their technology pertaining to space science and space missions.
  • Research required in life support systems, improved reliability and safety, crew escape system.

8. Not many years ago, river linking was a concept but it is becoming reality in the country. Discuss the advantages of river linking and its possible impact on the environment.

Refer - Work on Three River Interlinking Projects to Begin and What is Special Committee on Interlinking of Rivers? Gigantic Project

  • Reduce persistent floods in some parts and water shortages in other parts

  • Increase GDP by 5 - 6%

  • Generate electricity

  • Navigation – inland navigation

  • Business opportunities

  • Revenue generation


  • Ecological imbalance

  • Deforestation

  • Submergence of area

  • Displacement of people

Interlinking is important with careful considerations

9. Discuss the potential threats of Cyber-attack and the security framework to prevent it.

Refer -

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Digital Reforms in India: Payment & Governance Major Computer Terminologies

Dr. Manishika Jain explains the various digital reforms and key terminologies in computers Data Analytics

India remains vulnerable to digital intrusions such as cyber-espionage, cybercrime, digital disruption and Distributed Denial of Service (DoS).

  • Affect data

  • Data steal

  • Fraudulent transactions

  • Ransomware (WannaCry)

  • Affect relations to foreign nations

Security framework

  • Awareness

  • Strong password

  • Firewall protection

  • Set up national cyber emergency response team

  • Dedicated national level policy

  • Encourage research and development

  • CERT-IN, laws and policies - The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-IN) is the national nodal agency since 2004 for responding to cyber security incidents as and when they occur. It operates under Ministry of Communication and Information Technology.

Ensure business continuity and check on critical infrastructure system and disaster recovery plans

Bleeding edge refers to technology that has been released but is still not ready for the general public due to the fact that it has not been reliably tested

Air gapping is a security measure that involves isolating a computer or network and preventing it from establishing an external connection.

Big data analytics: it is the process of collecting, organizing and analyzing large sets of data (big data) to discover useful information.

Ground Zero Summit is the largest collaborative platform in Asia for Cyber security experts and researchers to address emerging cyber security challenges and demonstrate cutting-edge technologies.

10. The northeastern region of India has been infested with insurgency for a very long time. Analyze the major reasons for the survival of armed insurgency in this region.

  • India’s northeast connects with five countries — Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China and Nepal — by a 4,500 kms international border; the region, however, connects to India only through a narrow and tenuous land corridor measuring merely 22 kms
  • Nagaland, then part of the larger state of Assam, was the first to experience militancy. Long before the British left India, Nagas considered themselves to be independent and petitioned the British to declare them as an independent country. After being snubbed by both the British and the new regime in New Delhi, Nagas, under the leadership of the Naga National Council (N. N. C. ), headed by A. Z. Phizo, declared independence.
  • N. N. C. split into different factions and its breakaway faction, the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (N. S. C. N. ) also broke into two factions; those factions were the Isak-Muivah faction (N. S. C. N. -I. M. ) and the Khaplang faction (N. S. C. N. -K. ).
  • Mizo National Front (M. N. F. ), led by the legendary leader Laldenga, launched the movement on February 28,1966 and demanded independence for Mizoram.
  • Militant outfits in Tripura, the National Liberation Front of Tripura (N. L. F. T. ) and the All Tripura Tiger Force espousing the tribal cause have indulged in a number of attacks on the tribal population.
  • Volatile pre-conditions, which existed prior to the actual armed outbreak
  • Inner line regulation and backward tracts by Britishers

Sungratsu village was completely reduced to ashes by personnel of Indian armed forces on April 19,1956, which is reported to be the first among the numerous Naga villages to be burnt down by the armed forces.

  • Forested areas

  • Alienation

  • No good connectivity

  • Migration of non-locals into area

  • Political controversies

  • National conflict

  • Inaccessible terrains

  • Economic hardships

  • Sub-regional conflict

  • Guerilla warfare by insurgents

Abuse of power by counterinsurgency forces like the misuse of AFSPA

- Published/Last Modified on: September 27, 2018

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