# Analytical Logical Reasoning Higher Questions and Answers Part 3

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## Logical Reasoning (Verbal)

Question Format:

• Each question in this part of the assessment starts with a reading passage containing the information to be used to choose between correct and incorrect logical conclusions. These conclusions are based on the information in the passage. After this reading passage, you are given a lead-in phrase that tells you to choose from among five different responses. These possible responses are generated by correctly or incorrectly applying logical thought to the information in the passage at the beginning of the question. They can be thought of as different ways of completing a sentence that begins with the lead-in phrase.

• Each reading passage is based on actual Bureau of Labour Statistics documents but is not necessarily a completely accurate representation of BLS work. It is important that you accept every fact in the reading passage as true, when you evaluate the response choices offered. You should use only the information in the passage as the basis for accepting or rejecting any response choices. Be careful not to allow any â€śfactsâ€ť that are not clearly stated in the reading passage, or any outside knowledge you may have of the â€śfactsâ€ť, to influence your thinking.

• The lead -in phrase following each reading passage prompts you to select from among five response choices, labelled A through E, so that a complete and valid sentence is formed. The lead- in may ask you to select the statement that is a necessary consequence of the facts given, (that is, a conclusion that must be true from the facts given). This lead-in takes the general form:

â€śFrom the information given above it can be validly concluded that...â€ť

• You should respond here by selecting the alphabetical designator (A-E) of the statement that satisfies the stated condition, that is, a â€śvalid conclusion.â€ť

• Alternatively, the phrase may ask you to identify a conclusion that is not necessarily true (in that sense, â€śfalse,â€ť) given the facts contained in the reading passage. This kind of lead-in generally reads as follows:

â€śFrom the information given above it cannot be validly concluded that...â€ť

• Here you should choose the letter (A-E) next to the statement that is not adequately supported as necessarily true by reasoning from the facts you were given in the reading passage.

• If additional conditions are clearly stated in the sentence-completion instructions, then take them into account when making your answer choice. For example, if the instructions said:

â€śFrom the information given above it can be validly concluded that, in the State of Nevada in 1999...â€ť

• your response choice should be valid for â€śthe State of Nevada in 1999,â€ť in addition to following validly from the reading passage itself. Do not assume any of these additional limiting conditions. Only apply those that are stated.

• In all cases, there will be a single correct response alternative. None of the questions here (or on the actual assessment) have multiple correct answers.

## Test-Taking Tips for Logical Reasoning

Before you try to answer a few sample questions, here are some general test-taking tips that should help you with the Logical Reasoning section.

1. Study the question carefully. A brief explanation of why each choice is correct or incorrect follows each practice question. If you understand this reasoning for the practice items, you will do well on the actual assessment.

2. NEVER assume or use any information that the question fails to give you. This is NOT an assessment of how much you know about economics in general! Consider ONLY the information given in each reading passage when choosing among the alternative responses.

3. Read both the factual passage and the sentence completion instruction carefully. Both must be considered in making your choice.

4. Be sure to read all the response choices carefully before choosing one.

5. In questions that ask you to select a valid conclusion, always choose the one conclusion that must definitely follow from the information you are given. In questions that ask you to find the invalid alternative, choose the one conclusion that does not definitely follow from the information.

6. Pay special attention to words like â€śall,â€ť â€śsome,â€ť or â€śnoneâ€ť when you read the factual information each question gives you. Other qualifying words such as â€śother than,â€ť â€śonlyâ€ť or â€śunlessâ€ť are important, too. These words can play a critical part in precisely specifying the facts to be used in your reasoning.

7. Pay attention to negative prefixes also, such as non-, un-, or dis-. These can be crucial to specifying the basic facts in the paragraph.

8. â€śTest-takingâ€ť courses or your college instructors may have advised you to avoid any response choices that contain the quantifiers â€śallâ€ť or â€śnone.â€ť In both the practice questions here and in the actual economist assessment, these words are NOT signs of incorrect response choices. They will appear in both correct and incorrect response choices.

9. Pay close attention to the word â€śONLYâ€ť and to the phrase â€śIF AND ONLY IF.â€ť Saying â€śThe door will open IF AND ONLY IF both keys are usedâ€ť sets up a highly specific condition that must be met. There is exactly one way to open the door-you must use both keys. By contrast, if the sentence says, â€śThe door will open if the key is used,â€ť there may be several ways to open the door besides by using the key.

10. The questions in the assessment will vary in difficulty level, and difficult questions will be mixed in with easier ones throughout the assessment. When you encounter a question that is difficult for you, try drawing diagrams or other schematic notes on the â€śscratchâ€ť paper provided to support and confirm your thought processes. Also, bear in mind that you can stop working on a difficult question temporarily and return to it later.

Sample Questions:

Question 1

Although most of the fastest growing jobs in todayâ€™s economy will require a college degree, many of the new jobs being created-from home health aide to desktop publisher-require knowledge other than that gained from earning a degree. For workers in those jobs, good basic skills in reading, communication, and mathematics play an important role in getting a job and developing a career.

From the information given above it can be validly concluded that, in todayâ€™s economy,

A) skills in reading, communication, and mathematics play an important role in developing a career as a desktop publisher

B) the majority of the new jobs being created require knowledge other than that gained from earning a college degree

C) a job as a home health aide will rely more on communication skills than on basic skills in reading and mathematics

D) if a job is one of the fastest growing jobs, it will require a college degree

E) desktop publisher jobs and home health aide jobs are not among the fastest growing jobs.

Which letter corresponds to the correct response? ________

Question 2

According to the National Agricultural Aviation Society (NAAS), without the use of crop protection products to control insects, weeds, and diseases, crop yields per acre will drop by more than 50 percent. The first aerial application of insecticide occurred in 1921, and it was a huge success. By contrast, in todayâ€™s economy all aircraft that are classified as aerial applicators do more than just apply insecticide; today, they also spread seed and apply fertilizer.

From the information given above it CANNOT be validly concluded that

A) in todayâ€™s economy, if an aerial applicator is used, then it will be able to spread seed and to apply fertilizer

B) according to the NAAS, if crop yields per acre never drop by more than 50 percent, then crop protection products have been used to control insects, weeds, and diseases

C) in todayâ€™s economy, any aircraft that cannot be used to apply fertilizer cannot be classified as an aerial applicator

D) in 1921, if an aircraft was used for the application of insecticide, then it was not also used to spread seed

E) according to the NAAS, if crop yields per acre drop by more than 50 percent, then crop protection products have not been used to control insects, weeds, and diseases.

Which letter corresponds to the correct response? ________

Question 3

No national productivity measures are available for underground industries that may exist but remain unreported. On the other hand, at least some industries that are run entirely by self-employed industrialists are included in national productivity measures.

From the information given above, it can be validly concluded that

A) there are at least some industries run entirely by self-employed industrialists that are underground industries

B) no industries that are run entirely by self-employed industrialists operate underground

C) there are at least some industries other than those run entirely by self-employed industrialists that are underground industries

D) there are at least some industries run entirely by self-employed industrialists that are not underground industries

E) there are at least some underground industries for which national productivity measures are available.

Which letter corresponds to the correct response? ________