Agricultural Science English Paper 1 2015 Questions and Answers Part 2

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Two growth stimulants used in animal production systems:

  • Thyroid regulators
  • Hormones
  • Antibiotics
  • Tranquilizers (Any 2)

Growth response of the heifers at a volume of 15 ml:

395 kg

Internal Parasites

Identification of the type of a parasite:

Internal parasite

Two negative impacts of an internal parasite:

  • Depriving host of nutrients
  • Sucks host՚s blood/causes anemia
  • Lesions/cysts inside host
  • Decreases host՚s productivity
  • Progressive weakness
  • Death (Any 2)

How the animal is infected:

  • The animal will ingest
  • Metacercaria through grazing

Intermediate host:

Snail

Three pasture management measures of controlling Internal parasite:

  • Rotational grazing
  • Resting of infected pastures
  • Allowing animals that are resistant to specific internal parasites
  • Avoid wet places
  • Use of zero grazing
  • Removal of manure/hygienic measures (Any 3)

Question 4

Animal Reproduction

The Diagram below Represents the Reproductive Canal of a Farm Animal

Process in part D:

Spermatogenesis

Identify parts A, B and E:

  • Label A – Seminal vesicles/vesicular glands
  • Label B – Vas deferens/sperm duct
  • Label E – Scrotum/scrotal sac

Two congenital defects of part D:

Cryptorchidism – the condition whereby the testes remain in the abdominal cavity and do not descend into the scrotum

Hypoplasia – the condition whereby the testes are underdeveloped

Two functions of the part C:

  • Storage of semen
  • Maturation of sperms
  • Secretion of buffer
  • Transportation of semen
  • Concentration of semen

Oestrus

Oestrus

  • It is a period when non pregnant female animals
  • are receptive to male animals/allow mating

Three Signs of Oestrus

  • Vulva is swollen/reddish
  • Mucous discharge
  • Cow is restless and bellows often
  • Mounting other cows
  • Isolation
  • Decrease in food intake/loss of appetite
  • Legs and flanks are muddy
  • Allows mating (Any 3)

Three Practical Methods to Identify Cows on Heat

  • Observation of animal Behaviour
  • Place a bull in pen near the cows
  • Bulls marked with a chin ball marker
  • Tail paint on tail head/tail paint markers
  • Heat mount detectors (Any 3)

Graph of Oestrogen/Progesterone Levels in a Cow over 22 Days

Day Cow Will Mate with a Bull

Day 4 – 6

Motivation

  • Highest level of Oestrogen
  • Cow will be on heat

Day of Ovulation

Day 4 – 5

Stage when Progesterone is Highest

Met-Oestrus

Whether Cow Became Pregnant

Cow did not become pregnant

Motivation

  • Progesterone levels declined/decreased
  • after day 16 (2)

Modern Technologies: Artificial Insemination (AI) , Synchronization, Etc

Description of Synchronization of Oestrus

  • Making the Oestrus cycle of a number of female animals
  • to occur approximately at the same time

Three Advantages of AI in Dairy Cows

  • Improving the genetic quality of the offspring
  • No need to buy/manage expensive bulls
  • Can use semen of one bull to inseminate many cows
  • Prevents the spread of sexually transmitted diseases
  • Inferior sires can be detected
  • Can use semen from a bull after injury or death
  • Animals of different size can be mated without injury
  • Semen can be frozen for many years
  • Semen can be transported and used worldwide
  • An ejaculation of one bull can be used for many cows
  • Higher conception rate can be achieved (Any 3)

Four Sequential Stages Used in ET

  • Synchronization of Oestrus in donor and recipient cows
  • Superovulation of donor cows
  • Insemination of donor cows
  • Washing of the embryo from the uterus
  • Transfer embryo into the uterus of recipient cows (Any 4)

Total Section B: 105

Grand Total: 150