Agricultural Science English Paper 2 2015 Questions and Answers Part 3

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A farmer obtained a loan of R2 million from a bank. This loan was used to build a dam and install an irrigation system for a 50-ha maize field. The farmer also purchased three bakkies, each worth R165 000, and 50 beef cattle using his inheritance from his parents.

Redraw the table below in the Answer Book. Use the passage above as reference and write down the answers to (a) to (f) .

Redraw the Table below in the Answer Book
Types of CapitalExampleSource Of Capital

At a later stage, the farmer experienced problems with capital.

Study each of the statements below and indicate what type of capital problem the farmer experienced as a result of his actions (in the passage) :

  • Buying three bakkies instead of only one bakkie which could perform all the tasks required
  • Getting a loan from a bank instead of using his inheritance
  • Investing lots of money in production inputs which yielded no profits and even lead to losses as a result of natural disasters like droughts

The schematic representation below shows the strategic management of a food security programme in a provincial department of agriculture. The steps in such a strategic management process involve the mission, objectives, goals and vision. These steps are not sequentially arranged.

The Strategic Management

1. Match statements A, B, C and D with the relevant strategic management steps.

2. State THREE benefits that this programme would have for the rural community.

3. Name One skill that will enable the farm manager to anticipate and deal with challenges.

Question 4:

Basic Agricultural Genetics

Start this question on a New page.

A homozygous red bull (r) is mated with a homozygous black cow (R) .

  • Use the information above to show the genotype of the offspring that resulted from this crossing.
  • Calculate the percentage of black offspring.
  • Indicate the number of offspring with a homozygous gene pair.
  • Suppose the probability of having a red calf was 0 % . Indicate the genotype of the bull calf.

A farmer can use heritability and estimated breeding value to predict the progress of a breeding programme. The higher the heritability of a characteristic, the greater the chances of improving performance through selection and breeding. The average slaughter weight of the flock is 47,5 kg. The parent weighs 52,5 kg. The table below shows the heritability characteristics of sheep.

A Farmer Can Use Heritability and Estimated Breeding Value to Predict the Progress of a Breeding Programme
Heritability of CharacteristicsBirth WeightPost Weaning GainMeat TendernessSlaughter Weight
Heritability %49506085

Use the heritability value to calculate the slaughter weight (genetic gain) . Show ALL calculations, including the formula. Explain the implication of the value.

The illustration below indicates the process involved in plant improvement.

The Process Illustrated

1. Identify the process illustrated above. State the Two main potential risks of the process identified.

2. Name organism C.

3. Organism C shows certain characteristics that are useful in crop production. State Three of these characteristics.

Variation is a phenomenon that refers to differences in the characteristics of individuals and causes individual offspring to be slightly different from their parents. This phenomenon is a natural occurrence and is very important for famers as it forms the foundation of selection and breeding programmes.

1. Explain the importance of variation in a breeding programme.

2. Name Two genetic processes that cause variation.

3. Distinguish between continuous variation and discontinuous variation.

4. Define the concept of selection as used in breeding.

The illustration below shows an animal breeding method with cattle from two farmers (A and B) . Farmer A has a commercial Hereford herd while Farmer B is a Sussex stud breeder.

An Animal Breeding Method with Cattle

1. Identify the breeding method depicted above.

2. State THREE benefits that this breeding method will have for Farmer B.

3. Deduce a possible advantage that this breeding process can have for Farmer A.

Total Section B: 105

Grand Total: 150