Agriculture Technology Paper 1 2015 Questions and Answers Part 4

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Three factors to consider when purchasing an irrigation sprinkler system:

  • Size of area to be irrigated.

  • The shape of the land.

  • Obstructions, such as trees or rocks, may require extra work to water around.

  • The depth of the soil that needs to be watered.

  • Time and effort available to use the system.

Explain the working of an irrigation sprinkler:

  • The water passes through the sprinkler head and changes the water flow from a steady stream to a circular arc shape.

  • The water dispersion is designed to maximize the surface area that is reached by the water.

  • Lawn sprinkler heads can be recessed into the ground and forced up by the pressure of the water when the system is activated. Other systems can be fixed in a place above ground.

Two criteria that will influence the farmer’s decision on when to irrigate a crop:

  • Intuition.

  • Calendar days since the last rainfall or irrigation.

  • Crop evapotranspiration.

  • Soil water. (Any 2)

The working of this fire suppression sprinkler system:

  • Built into the sprinkler head is a heat-sensitive bulb or a two-part metal link that is held together with an alloy.

  • The bulb or metal lies across the top of the head and acts as a plug to keep the opening closed.

  • In the event of a fire, the plug will melt and release the water that will in turn distinguish the fire.

Functions of the TWO compartments :

  • Anaerobic bacteria in the first tank break down sewage.

  • Very little solids remain when the watery sewerage flows to the second tank.

  • Sludge from the first tank must be pumped out periodically.

  • Only liquid sewage remains in the second tank and drains away through the outlet pipe or stone trench.

Three criteria that must be followed when maintaining a septic tank:

  • Septic tank sludge must be pumped out periodically.

  • The frequency of pumping out will depend primarily on the amount of wastewater that goes through the system each day.

  • The frequency also depends on how careful you are about not throwing excess fats, rinds and other similar garbage down the drains.

  • The more solid waste thrown in the system, the quicker the tank will fill up.

  • Heavy flows of water also tend to make the tank fill up more quickly.

  • That is why it is best not to use a garbage disposal in the system when you have a septic tank, and why water should not be left running indiscriminately in sinks or toilets.

Three places where a septic tank may Not be built:

  • Do not build near boreholes, drinking water installations.

  • A suitable distance away from the house.

  • Not near traffic.

  • Not near places where people eat, wash or work regularly. (Any 3)

Explain the abbreviation GPS:

GPS stands for the Global Positioning System.

How can a farmer use a GPS device?

Device that pinpoint a precise location on the earth. Harvester

Total Section B: 160

Grand Total: 200