Climate Change Global Warming, Climate Change Mitigation, Timeline

Dr. Manishika Jain- Join online Paper 1 intensive course. Includes tests and expected questions.

  • It is the long term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time

  • Though it has been happening naturally for millions of years, in recent years it has accelerated due to anthropogenic causes and has been causing global warming.

  • UNFCCC defines climate change as – “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”

Global Warming

  • An increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century

  • 4th assessment report of IPCC: global temperature increased 0.74+0.18 degree C during the 20th century.

  • Caused by greenhouse gases

    • Water vapour, CO2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Ozone, CFCs (in order of abundance)

  • Since the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has increased the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere from 280 ppm to 390 ppm.

Climate Change Mitigation

  • Alternative Energy sources

    • Renewable energy

    • Nuclear Power

    • Reduce the carbon intensity of fossil fuels

  • Energy efficiency and conservation

    • Transport and urban planning

    • Building design

    • Reforestation and avoid deforestation

    • Eliminating waste methane

  • Geoengineering

  • Greenhouse gas remediation

    • Biomass

    • Carbon air capture

    • Carbon capture and storage

  • Societal control

    • Population

    • Sustainable life-style


Inter-Governmental Action

  • IPCC

  • UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit), 1992

  • Agenda 21

    • An action plan of UN relating to sustainable development adopted at the Earth Summit, 1992


  • Kyoto Protocol


  • 1988 by World Meteorological Organisation and UNEP

  • tasked with reviewing and assessing the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change

  • Nobel Prize in 2007

  • The IPCC does not carry out its own original research, nor does it do the work of monitoring climate or related phenomena itself.

  • A main activity of the IPCC is publishing special reports on topics relevant to the implementation of the (UNFCCC)

  • Till now, it has released four assessment reports (1990, 1995, 2001, 2007)

  • Fifth assessment report is due in 2014


1992 at the Rio Summit.

194 members. Secretariat at Bonn.

Parties to UNFCCC are classified as:

  • Annex I countries – industrialized countries and economies in transition

  • Annex II countries – developed countries which pay for costs of developing countries

  • Developing countries.

Table of Conference, Place & Outcome




1995 COP1


The Berlin Mandate

1996 COP2


1997 COP3


Kyoto Protocol

1998 COP4

Buenos Aires

1999 COP5


2000 COP6 /2001 COP6

The Hague/Bonn

CDM and Joint Implementation adopted at Bonn

2001 COP7


2002 COP8

New Delhi

Delhi Declaration: Calls for efforts by developed countries to transfer technology and minimize the impact of climate change on developing countries

2003 COP9


2004 COP10

Buenos Aires

2005 COP11/MOP1


2006 COP12/MOP2


2007 COP13/MOP3


Bali Action Plan

2008 COP14/MOP4

Poznan, Poland

2009 COP15/MOP5


2010 COP16/MOP6


2011 COP17/MOP7

Durban, South Africa