Thermodynamics Basics for ICAR NET 2020

Dr. Manishika Jain- Join online Paper 1 intensive course. Includes tests and expected questions.

Thermodynamics: Laws Of Thermodynamics And Heat Transfer Processes (Environmental Science)

Image Thermodynamics

Image Thermodynamics

Loading image

Laws of Thermodynamics

  • First Law:

Stated by Mayer and Helmholtz

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed by any physical or chemical change. It may change from one form to another.

Where,

  • Second Law:

According to Kelvin, it is impossible to take heat from a cold reservoir and convert it into work without at the same time transferring heat from a hot to cold reservoir.

  • Third Law:

It is not possible to reduce the temperature of any system to absolute zero by any method involving finite number of operations, however, the ideal method may be.

Heat Transfer Processes

  • Planck’s Law

Every object emits over the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

  • Stefan-Boltzmann Law

Total energy emitted by a black body is directly proportional to fourth power of its temperature.

  • Wien's Displacement Law

The product of peak wavelength and temperature of a blackbody radiator is constant.

Mass and Energy Transfer Across Various Interfaces

Image Mass and Energy Transfer Across Various Interfaces

Image Mass and Energy Transfer Across Various Interfaces

Loading image

Material Balance

  • Also known as Mass balance.

  • Used to find the accumulation of a contaminant/ pollutant/ substance in a particular region.

  • Those particular region are also called as control volume.

Image Material Balance

Image Material Balance

Loading image

Mass Balance Equation

Accumulation rate = Input rate – Output rate + Reaction rate

  • For Steady-State conservation Systems

Input rate = Output rate

#Thermodynamics

#UGC NTA NET

#Fundamentals of Environmental science

#Laws of thermodynamics

#Thermodynamicprocess

#Mass and energy transfer across interfaces

#Material balance