Climate Change Global Warming, Climate Change Mitigation, Timeline

Dr. Manishika Jain- Join online Paper 1 intensive course. Includes tests and expected questions.

  • It is the long term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time
  • Though it has been happening naturally for millions of years, in recent years it has accelerated due to anthropogenic causes and has been causing global warming.
  • UNFCCC defines climate change as – “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”

Global Warming

  • An increase in the average temperature of Earth՚s near surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century
  • 4th assessment report of IPCC: global temperature increased degree C during the 20th century.
  • Caused by greenhouse gases
    • Water vapour, CO2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Ozone, CFCs (in order of abundance)
  • Since the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has increased the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere from 280 ppm to 390 ppm.

Climate Change Mitigation

  • Alternative Energy sources
    • Renewable energy
    • Nuclear Power
    • Reduce the carbon intensity of fossil fuels
  • Energy efficiency and conservation
    • Transport and urban planning
    • Building design
    • Reforestation and avoid deforestation
    • Eliminating waste methane
  • Geoengineering
  • Greenhouse gas remediation
    • Biomass
    • Carbon air capture
    • Carbon capture and storage
  • Societal control
    • Population
    • Sustainable life-style


Reference Article

Inter-Governmental Action

  • IPCC
  • UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit) , 1992
  • Agenda 21
    • An action plan of UN relating to sustainable development adopted at the Earth Summit, 1992
  • Kyoto Protocol


  • 1988 by World Meteorological Organisation and UNEP
  • tasked with reviewing and assessing the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change
  • Nobel Prize in 2007
  • The IPCC does not carry out its own original research, nor does it do the work of monitoring climate or related phenomena itself.
  • A main activity of the IPCC is publishing special reports on topics relevant to the implementation of the (UNFCCC)
  • Till now, it has released four assessment reports (1990, 1995,2001, 2007)
  • Fifth assessment report is due in 2014


1992 at the Rio Summit.

194 members. Secretariat at Bonn.

Parties to UNFCCC are classified as:

  • Annex I countries – industrialized countries and economies in transition
  • Annex II countries – developed countries which pay for costs of developing countries
  • Developing countries.
Table of Conference, Place & Outcome
1995 BerlinThe Berlin Mandate
1996 Geneva
1997 KyotoKyoto Protocol
1998 Buenos Aires
1999 Bonn
The Hague/BonnCDM and Joint Implementation adopted at Bonn
2001 Marrakesh
2002 New DelhiDelhi Declaration: Calls for efforts by developed countries to transfer technology and minimize the impact of climate change on developing countries
2003 Milan
2004 Buenos Aires
2005 Montreal
2006 Nairobi
2007 /BaliBali Action Plan
2008 /Poznan, Poland
2009 /Copenhagen
2010 /Cancun
2011 /Durban, South Africa

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