Environmental Summits YouTube Lecture Handouts for ICMR NET 2021

Dr. Manishika Jain- Join online Paper 1 intensive course. Includes tests and expected questions.

Get video tutorial on: Examrace YouTube Channel

Earth Summit & Conventions: 3 Aspects - Climate Change, Biodiversity & Sustainable Development

Earth Summit Key Aspects

Earth Summit Key Aspects
  • 1972: UN Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm - United Nations Environment Program established
  • Earth watch: UNEP keeps constant surveillance on environment.
  • Global Environment Outlook (GEO) : UNEP publishes this report. 5th report (GEO-5) released in 2012.
  • 1983, World Commission on Environment and Development led by Gro Harlem Brundtland of Norway – Sustainable Development
  • 1987: Brundtland report (Our Common Future) - UN General Assembly called for UNCED with primary goals of socio-economic development and prevent continued environmental deterioration

Agenda 21

  • Non-binding
  • Voluntary
  • Action plan of United Nations
  • Related with sustainable development
  • Can be executed at local, national, and global levels
  • “21” refers to the 21st Century
Steps of a Local Agenda 21

Rio Declaration

  • 27 principles & 3rd generation rights
  • Rio + 10 (2002) – full implementation of Agenda 21
  • Rio + 20 (2012) – renew political commitment, implement gaps & address challenges – 20 yr gap b/w 1992 and 2012
    • Poverty Reduction
    • Clean Energy
    • Sustainable Development
    • 7 Priority Areas: Job, Energy, Cities, Food, Water, Ocean & Disaster
    • 49 page document – “Future we want”

Statement of Forest Principles

  • First global consensus on forest
  • Developed nations should work to green the world
  • Develop forest based on socio-economic needs
  • Provide financial resources for development
  • 1994: Working Group on Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests started

Cartagena Protocol

  • Or Biosafety Protocol
  • CoP 5 – opened for signature (2000)
  • Adopted in 2000 & ratified in 2003 & came in force 2004
  • Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) by biotechnology
  • Trans boundary movement & handling
  • Balance public health against economic benefits
  • Precautionary approach in Principle 15 of Rio
  • Establish biosafety clearing house

Aichi Targets

  • CoP (Conference of Parties 10) held at Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • Biodiversity protection targets – 10 year framework
  • Short term by 2020 as “Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011 - 2020”
  • Long term by 2050
  • 20 Targets in 5 Sections (A to E)
  • Goal A: Address causes of biodiversity loss
  • Goal B: Reduce direct pressure on biodiversity and promote sustainable use
  • Goal C: Safeguard ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
  • Goal D: Biodiversity benefits to all
  • Goal E: Participatory planning, capacity building

Nagoya Genetic Resource Protocol

  • Came in force in 2014
  • Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from use of genetic resources
  • Access and Benefit-sharing Clearing-House – facilitate implementation, transparency and monitoring
  • Create legal certainty

Classification of Parties to UNFCCC -2015

  • Annex-I: 43 nations + EU – Industrialized nations and economies in transition (EITs)
  • Annex-II: From annex – I, 24 nations + EU – members of OECD – provide support to EITs & developing nations
  • Non-Annex-I: Low income developing countries
  • LDCs: 49 nations under special status
  • Protocol: International agreement that stands on its own but is linked to an existing convention

Climate Change Initiatives

Climate Change Initiatives

World՚S First Climate Conference

  • In 1979
  • In Geneva
  • By WMO
  • Establishment of World Climate Program & World Climate Research Program
  • Creation of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) by WMO & UNEP in 1988

World՚S Second Climate Conference

  • In 1990
  • In Geneva
  • Review World Climate Program
  • Establishment of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCCC)
  • Establishment of Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) - global observing system of systems for climate and climate-related observations

World՚S Third Climate Conference

  • In 2009
  • In Geneva
  • Focus on Climatic predictions
  • Contribute to achievement of United Nations Millennium Development Goals
  • Contribute to Hyogo Framework for Action on Disaster Risk Reduction (2005 - 2015)

Berlin Mandate

  • B/w UN convention & Kyoto Protocol – 2 CoP
  • CoP 1: Berlin – Berlin Mandate by developed nations to set targets to reduce GHG
  • CoP 2: Ministerial Declaration – Geneva – legally binding commitments on GHG were warranted

Kyoto Protocol

  • Adopted in 1997 & entered into force in 2005 – 164 nations
  • CoP 6: Bonn Agreement - 2001
  • CoP 7: Marakkesh Accord – 2001
  • Emissions trading – Annex-1 purchase credit from other annex-1
  • CDM - Annex-1 participate in non-Annex-1
  • Joint Implementation - Annex-1 do projects in other Annex-1
  • Russia, Japan, Canada, New Zealand & Many EU Nations ratified
  • GHG: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro fluorocarbons, perfluro carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride
  • Canada - 6 % , EU - 8 %
  • Expires in 2012

Kyoto Protocol

  • Canada – ratified; USA & Australia – Not Ratified
  • Commits industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions
  • Sets binding emission reduction targets for 36 industrialized countries & EU
  • IPCC believed increase in temperature b/w 1.4 to 5.8
  • Targets add up to average 5 % emission reduction compared to 1990 levels over 2008 – 2012 (the first commitment period)
  • Binds developed countries & heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR – RC) , for high levels of GHG emissions
  • Copenhagen Accord
  • In 2009 – Mitigate GHG
  • Action to keep average global temperatures from rising more than 2 above pre-industrial times
  • Emission reduction goal for 2020, no target for developing nations
  • $ 30 billion in fast-start money from developed nations during 2010 - 2012
  • Beyond 2012- developed countries would mobilize $ 100 billion a year by 2020

Cancun

  • 2010 in Cancun, Mexico
  • Global warming limited to less than 2 relative to pre-industrial analysis
  • Establish Green Climate Fund - $ 100 billion fund to help developing nations deal with global warming
  • New Technology Mission - Fully operational by 2012 to boost the innovation, development & new climate-friendly technologies;
  • Adaptation Framework to reduce Deforestation - promote the implementation of stronger, cohesive action on adaptation

Doha Amendment

  • Agreed on 2012
  • CoP 18 & CMP 8
  • Not entered into force as required number of nations has not ratified this amendment
  • Amendment will enter into force when 144 or three-quarters of Parties submit acceptance
  • Important to achieve SDG 13

Lima

  • 2014 in Lima, Peru
  • 195 nations
  • Emission reduction by USA & China
  • EU to reduce emission 40 % by 2030
  • Levels of transparency and confidence-building
  • Lima Ministerial Declaration on Education and Awareness
  • Low carbon & climate resilient society

Paris Agreement

  • Strengthen global response to threat of climate change by keeping global temperature rise this century well below 2 above pre-industrial levels
  • Pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5
  • All Parties to put forward their best efforts through “nationally determined contributions” (NDCs)
  • Long-term temperature goal (Art. 2)
  • Global peaking (Art. 3)
  • Mitigation (Art. 4)
  • Sinks and reservoirs (Art. 5)
  • Market and non-markets (Art. 6)
  • Adaptation (Art. 7)
  • Loss and damage (Art. 8)
  • Support (Art. 9,10 and 11)
  • Transparency (Art. 13)
  • Global Stock take (Art. 14) – to take place in 2023 & every 5 years thereafter

Marrakech, Morocco

  • CoP 22 & CMP 12 in 2016
  • Water management
  • Decarbonizing energy supplies
  • SuRe – Standard for Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure
  • Accelerating Urban Mobility Forum
  • Low Carbon Innovation
  • Green Academic Growth
  • $ 23 million for Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN)
  • $ 50 million for the Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency
  • Double World Bank climate finance for Middle East-North Africa region to $ 1.5 billion by 2020.

Developed by: